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Daughters at Risk of Female Genital Mutilation: Examining the Determinants of Mothers' Intentions to Allow Their Daughters to Undergo Female Genital Mutilation.

Pashaei T, Ponnet K, Moeeni M, Khazaee-pool M, Majlessi F - PLoS ONE (2016)

Bottom Line: Our results indicate that attitude is the strongest predictor of mothers' intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM, followed by subjective norms.Furthermore, we found that less educated mothers and mothers living in rural areas had more positive attitudes toward FGM and feel more social pressure to allow FGM.Based on our findings, we provide recommendations about how to curtail mothers' intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Public Health, School of Health, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

ABSTRACT
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is still a common practice in many countries in Africa and the Middle East. Understanding the determinants of FGM can lead to more active interventions to prevent this harmful practice. The goal of this study is to explore factors associated with FGM behavior among Iranian mothers and their daughters. Based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior, we examined the predictive value of attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and several socio-demographic variables in relation to mothers' intentions to mutilate their daughters. A paper-and-pencil survey was conducted among 300 mothers (mean age = 33.20, SD = 9.09) who had at least one daughter and who lived in Ravansar, a county in Kermanshah Province in Iran. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the relationships among the study variables. Our results indicate that attitude is the strongest predictor of mothers' intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM, followed by subjective norms. Compared to younger mothers, older mothers have more positive attitudes toward FGM, perceive themselves as having more control over their behavior and demonstrate a greater intention to allow their daughter to undergo FGM. Furthermore, we found that less educated mothers and mothers living in rural areas had more positive attitudes toward FGM and feel more social pressure to allow FGM. The model accounts for 93 percent of the variance in the mothers' intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM. Intervention programs that want to decrease FGM might focus primarily on converting mothers' neutral or positive feelings toward FGM into negative attitudes and on alleviating the perceived social pressure to mutilate one's daughter. Based on our findings, we provide recommendations about how to curtail mothers' intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM.

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Structural model for the determinants predicting mothers’ intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM.
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pone.0151630.g001: Structural model for the determinants predicting mothers’ intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM.

Mentions: As shown in Fig 1, the measurement and structural model provided an adequate fit to the data. All factor loadings of the latent constructs were significant and above .69. Our analyses revealed that the study variables, together with the covariates, explained 93% of the total variance of the mothers’ intentions to mutilate their daughters. The attitudes (H1) and subjective norms (H2) were significantly related to the mothers’ intentions to mutilate their daughters. Attitudes had the strongest relationship with intention (β = .53, p <. 001), followed by subjective norms (β = .35, p <. 001). Thus mothers with a more favorable attitude and who perceived more social pressure from important others in their lives were more likely to have the intention to mutilate their daughters. Perceived behavioral control (H3) was not significantly related to intention (β = .03, p = .23).


Daughters at Risk of Female Genital Mutilation: Examining the Determinants of Mothers' Intentions to Allow Their Daughters to Undergo Female Genital Mutilation.

Pashaei T, Ponnet K, Moeeni M, Khazaee-pool M, Majlessi F - PLoS ONE (2016)

Structural model for the determinants predicting mothers’ intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4816284&req=5

pone.0151630.g001: Structural model for the determinants predicting mothers’ intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM.
Mentions: As shown in Fig 1, the measurement and structural model provided an adequate fit to the data. All factor loadings of the latent constructs were significant and above .69. Our analyses revealed that the study variables, together with the covariates, explained 93% of the total variance of the mothers’ intentions to mutilate their daughters. The attitudes (H1) and subjective norms (H2) were significantly related to the mothers’ intentions to mutilate their daughters. Attitudes had the strongest relationship with intention (β = .53, p <. 001), followed by subjective norms (β = .35, p <. 001). Thus mothers with a more favorable attitude and who perceived more social pressure from important others in their lives were more likely to have the intention to mutilate their daughters. Perceived behavioral control (H3) was not significantly related to intention (β = .03, p = .23).

Bottom Line: Our results indicate that attitude is the strongest predictor of mothers' intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM, followed by subjective norms.Furthermore, we found that less educated mothers and mothers living in rural areas had more positive attitudes toward FGM and feel more social pressure to allow FGM.Based on our findings, we provide recommendations about how to curtail mothers' intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Public Health, School of Health, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

ABSTRACT
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is still a common practice in many countries in Africa and the Middle East. Understanding the determinants of FGM can lead to more active interventions to prevent this harmful practice. The goal of this study is to explore factors associated with FGM behavior among Iranian mothers and their daughters. Based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior, we examined the predictive value of attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and several socio-demographic variables in relation to mothers' intentions to mutilate their daughters. A paper-and-pencil survey was conducted among 300 mothers (mean age = 33.20, SD = 9.09) who had at least one daughter and who lived in Ravansar, a county in Kermanshah Province in Iran. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the relationships among the study variables. Our results indicate that attitude is the strongest predictor of mothers' intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM, followed by subjective norms. Compared to younger mothers, older mothers have more positive attitudes toward FGM, perceive themselves as having more control over their behavior and demonstrate a greater intention to allow their daughter to undergo FGM. Furthermore, we found that less educated mothers and mothers living in rural areas had more positive attitudes toward FGM and feel more social pressure to allow FGM. The model accounts for 93 percent of the variance in the mothers' intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM. Intervention programs that want to decrease FGM might focus primarily on converting mothers' neutral or positive feelings toward FGM into negative attitudes and on alleviating the perceived social pressure to mutilate one's daughter. Based on our findings, we provide recommendations about how to curtail mothers' intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus