Limits...
Influence of Proton-Pump Inhibitors on the Luminal Microbiota in the Gastrointestinal Tract.

Tsuda A, Suda W, Morita H, Takanashi K, Takagi A, Koga Y, Hattori M - Clin Transl Gastroenterol (2015)

Bottom Line: The objective of this study was to investigate comparatively the influence of proton-pump inhibitors (PPI) administration on three bacterial communities in the oral cavity, stomach, and colon along the alimentary tract.In the comparison between PPI-users and PPI-nonusers, a bacterial cell number increase of ~1,000 times was found in the GF of PPI-users using culturing methods, whereas the bacterial number and composition were nearly identical between the two groups using quantitative PCR and a similarity search based on 16S profiling.The biological significance of the increase in beta diversity by PPI administration remains unclear.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] Laboratory for Infectious Diseases, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Japan [2] Department of General Medicine, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Japan.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate comparatively the influence of proton-pump inhibitors (PPI) administration on three bacterial communities in the oral cavity, stomach, and colon along the alimentary tract.

Methods: Forty-five subjects including 18 patients taking PPI were enrolled. Stimulated saliva, gastric fluid (GF), and feces were obtained from each subject for the microbiota analysis through bacterial 16S rRNA gene profiling using the pyrosequencing method.

Results: The species richness (alpha diversity) was similar among these three microbiota, whereas the interindividual diversity (beta diversity) was much higher in the fecal microbiota compared with that in the others. The UniFrac analysis indicated that the salivary and GF microbiota were similar to one another; however, both differed greatly from the fecal microbiota in the overall bacterial community structure. In the comparison between PPI-users and PPI-nonusers, a bacterial cell number increase of ~1,000 times was found in the GF of PPI-users using culturing methods, whereas the bacterial number and composition were nearly identical between the two groups using quantitative PCR and a similarity search based on 16S profiling. The beta diversity significantly increased in both the salivary and GF microbiota of PPI-users compared with PPI-nonusers.

Conclusions: These results suggest that the GF microbiota has recently moved from the saliva. Bacterial overgrowth in the GF by PPI administration may be due to a lack of killing rather than proliferation of the bacteria in the acid-suppressed stomach. The biological significance of the increase in beta diversity by PPI administration remains unclear.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Difference in the UniFrac distance between proton-pump inhibitor (PPI)-users and PPI-nonusers. Salivary, gastric fluid (GF), and fecal samples were obtained from (open bars) PPI-nonusers and (filled bars) PPI-users. Bars represent the average of (upper panels) unweighted and (lower panels) weighted UniFrac distances. “All the subjects” includes both PPI-nonusers and PPI-users. NS: P>0.05.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4816248&req=5

fig2: Difference in the UniFrac distance between proton-pump inhibitor (PPI)-users and PPI-nonusers. Salivary, gastric fluid (GF), and fecal samples were obtained from (open bars) PPI-nonusers and (filled bars) PPI-users. Bars represent the average of (upper panels) unweighted and (lower panels) weighted UniFrac distances. “All the subjects” includes both PPI-nonusers and PPI-users. NS: P>0.05.

Mentions: The overall bacterial community structure was compared using the UniFrac analysis. The average of UniFrac distance was much longer in the microbiota of the feces compared with that of the saliva or GF microbiota irrespective of PPI usage (Figure 2). A cluster analysis according to the UniFrac distance showed that there were two distinct clusters, one composed of both salivary and GF samples and another composed of fecal samples alone (Figure 3). In addition, the closest relationship was found in many of the pairs between the salivary and GF samples of the same individuals. These findings were also confirmed by both the unweighted and weighted UniFrac principal coordinate analyses, in which both the salivary and GF samples aggregated to form a cluster separate from the cluster of fecal samples (Figure 4).


Influence of Proton-Pump Inhibitors on the Luminal Microbiota in the Gastrointestinal Tract.

Tsuda A, Suda W, Morita H, Takanashi K, Takagi A, Koga Y, Hattori M - Clin Transl Gastroenterol (2015)

Difference in the UniFrac distance between proton-pump inhibitor (PPI)-users and PPI-nonusers. Salivary, gastric fluid (GF), and fecal samples were obtained from (open bars) PPI-nonusers and (filled bars) PPI-users. Bars represent the average of (upper panels) unweighted and (lower panels) weighted UniFrac distances. “All the subjects” includes both PPI-nonusers and PPI-users. NS: P>0.05.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4816248&req=5

fig2: Difference in the UniFrac distance between proton-pump inhibitor (PPI)-users and PPI-nonusers. Salivary, gastric fluid (GF), and fecal samples were obtained from (open bars) PPI-nonusers and (filled bars) PPI-users. Bars represent the average of (upper panels) unweighted and (lower panels) weighted UniFrac distances. “All the subjects” includes both PPI-nonusers and PPI-users. NS: P>0.05.
Mentions: The overall bacterial community structure was compared using the UniFrac analysis. The average of UniFrac distance was much longer in the microbiota of the feces compared with that of the saliva or GF microbiota irrespective of PPI usage (Figure 2). A cluster analysis according to the UniFrac distance showed that there were two distinct clusters, one composed of both salivary and GF samples and another composed of fecal samples alone (Figure 3). In addition, the closest relationship was found in many of the pairs between the salivary and GF samples of the same individuals. These findings were also confirmed by both the unweighted and weighted UniFrac principal coordinate analyses, in which both the salivary and GF samples aggregated to form a cluster separate from the cluster of fecal samples (Figure 4).

Bottom Line: The objective of this study was to investigate comparatively the influence of proton-pump inhibitors (PPI) administration on three bacterial communities in the oral cavity, stomach, and colon along the alimentary tract.In the comparison between PPI-users and PPI-nonusers, a bacterial cell number increase of ~1,000 times was found in the GF of PPI-users using culturing methods, whereas the bacterial number and composition were nearly identical between the two groups using quantitative PCR and a similarity search based on 16S profiling.The biological significance of the increase in beta diversity by PPI administration remains unclear.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] Laboratory for Infectious Diseases, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Japan [2] Department of General Medicine, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Japan.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate comparatively the influence of proton-pump inhibitors (PPI) administration on three bacterial communities in the oral cavity, stomach, and colon along the alimentary tract.

Methods: Forty-five subjects including 18 patients taking PPI were enrolled. Stimulated saliva, gastric fluid (GF), and feces were obtained from each subject for the microbiota analysis through bacterial 16S rRNA gene profiling using the pyrosequencing method.

Results: The species richness (alpha diversity) was similar among these three microbiota, whereas the interindividual diversity (beta diversity) was much higher in the fecal microbiota compared with that in the others. The UniFrac analysis indicated that the salivary and GF microbiota were similar to one another; however, both differed greatly from the fecal microbiota in the overall bacterial community structure. In the comparison between PPI-users and PPI-nonusers, a bacterial cell number increase of ~1,000 times was found in the GF of PPI-users using culturing methods, whereas the bacterial number and composition were nearly identical between the two groups using quantitative PCR and a similarity search based on 16S profiling. The beta diversity significantly increased in both the salivary and GF microbiota of PPI-users compared with PPI-nonusers.

Conclusions: These results suggest that the GF microbiota has recently moved from the saliva. Bacterial overgrowth in the GF by PPI administration may be due to a lack of killing rather than proliferation of the bacteria in the acid-suppressed stomach. The biological significance of the increase in beta diversity by PPI administration remains unclear.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus