Limits...
Influence of Proton-Pump Inhibitors on the Luminal Microbiota in the Gastrointestinal Tract.

Tsuda A, Suda W, Morita H, Takanashi K, Takagi A, Koga Y, Hattori M - Clin Transl Gastroenterol (2015)

Bottom Line: The objective of this study was to investigate comparatively the influence of proton-pump inhibitors (PPI) administration on three bacterial communities in the oral cavity, stomach, and colon along the alimentary tract.In the comparison between PPI-users and PPI-nonusers, a bacterial cell number increase of ~1,000 times was found in the GF of PPI-users using culturing methods, whereas the bacterial number and composition were nearly identical between the two groups using quantitative PCR and a similarity search based on 16S profiling.The biological significance of the increase in beta diversity by PPI administration remains unclear.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] Laboratory for Infectious Diseases, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Japan [2] Department of General Medicine, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Japan.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate comparatively the influence of proton-pump inhibitors (PPI) administration on three bacterial communities in the oral cavity, stomach, and colon along the alimentary tract.

Methods: Forty-five subjects including 18 patients taking PPI were enrolled. Stimulated saliva, gastric fluid (GF), and feces were obtained from each subject for the microbiota analysis through bacterial 16S rRNA gene profiling using the pyrosequencing method.

Results: The species richness (alpha diversity) was similar among these three microbiota, whereas the interindividual diversity (beta diversity) was much higher in the fecal microbiota compared with that in the others. The UniFrac analysis indicated that the salivary and GF microbiota were similar to one another; however, both differed greatly from the fecal microbiota in the overall bacterial community structure. In the comparison between PPI-users and PPI-nonusers, a bacterial cell number increase of ~1,000 times was found in the GF of PPI-users using culturing methods, whereas the bacterial number and composition were nearly identical between the two groups using quantitative PCR and a similarity search based on 16S profiling. The beta diversity significantly increased in both the salivary and GF microbiota of PPI-users compared with PPI-nonusers.

Conclusions: These results suggest that the GF microbiota has recently moved from the saliva. Bacterial overgrowth in the GF by PPI administration may be due to a lack of killing rather than proliferation of the bacteria in the acid-suppressed stomach. The biological significance of the increase in beta diversity by PPI administration remains unclear.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Analysis of the operational taxonomic unit (OTU) number. (a) The rarefaction curve plots the number of OTU as a function of the number of reads. Squares, circles and triangles represent the curves for salivary, gastric fluid (GF), and fecal micobiota, respectively. (b and c) The OTU number representing the bacterial species richness of the microbiota was estimated using the (b) observed OTU and the (c) Chao 1 index.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4816248&req=5

fig1: Analysis of the operational taxonomic unit (OTU) number. (a) The rarefaction curve plots the number of OTU as a function of the number of reads. Squares, circles and triangles represent the curves for salivary, gastric fluid (GF), and fecal micobiota, respectively. (b and c) The OTU number representing the bacterial species richness of the microbiota was estimated using the (b) observed OTU and the (c) Chao 1 index.

Mentions: We obtained sample-assigned pyrosequencing reads having both forward and reverse primer sequences, which accounted for 69.8% of the total number of reads from the salivary, GF, and fecal samples of the 45 subjects. After removing low-quality and possibly chimera reads, 1,237,315 high-quality 16S reads were ultimately generated from 135 microbiota samples. Of them, 3,000 reads were randomly selected for each sample and used for the further analyses. The rarefaction curves, which plots the OTU number as a function of the read number, showed that the contours of the three microbiota almost overlapped, suggesting no difference in the degree of bacterial species richness among them (Figure 1a). The species richness (alpha diversity) of the samples was also evaluated using the observed OTU number and the estimated OTU numbers by the Chao 1 index (Figure 1b). These analyses demonstrated no significant differences in the species richness among the salivary, GF, or fecal samples. On the other hand, the log CFU bacterial count (mean±s.d., median) quantified by qPCR was 8.70±0.25, 8.69/ml; 7.75±0.57, 7.79/ml; and 10.56±0.26, 10.46/mg in the saliva, GF, and feces, respectively, when examined in 10 randomly selected subjects (Supplementary Figure S1 online). These results suggested that the luminal microbiota in the oral cavity, stomach, and colon consisted of a similar number of species, although the bacterial cell number varied by ~1,000 times with the following order, GF<saliva<feces.


Influence of Proton-Pump Inhibitors on the Luminal Microbiota in the Gastrointestinal Tract.

Tsuda A, Suda W, Morita H, Takanashi K, Takagi A, Koga Y, Hattori M - Clin Transl Gastroenterol (2015)

Analysis of the operational taxonomic unit (OTU) number. (a) The rarefaction curve plots the number of OTU as a function of the number of reads. Squares, circles and triangles represent the curves for salivary, gastric fluid (GF), and fecal micobiota, respectively. (b and c) The OTU number representing the bacterial species richness of the microbiota was estimated using the (b) observed OTU and the (c) Chao 1 index.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4816248&req=5

fig1: Analysis of the operational taxonomic unit (OTU) number. (a) The rarefaction curve plots the number of OTU as a function of the number of reads. Squares, circles and triangles represent the curves for salivary, gastric fluid (GF), and fecal micobiota, respectively. (b and c) The OTU number representing the bacterial species richness of the microbiota was estimated using the (b) observed OTU and the (c) Chao 1 index.
Mentions: We obtained sample-assigned pyrosequencing reads having both forward and reverse primer sequences, which accounted for 69.8% of the total number of reads from the salivary, GF, and fecal samples of the 45 subjects. After removing low-quality and possibly chimera reads, 1,237,315 high-quality 16S reads were ultimately generated from 135 microbiota samples. Of them, 3,000 reads were randomly selected for each sample and used for the further analyses. The rarefaction curves, which plots the OTU number as a function of the read number, showed that the contours of the three microbiota almost overlapped, suggesting no difference in the degree of bacterial species richness among them (Figure 1a). The species richness (alpha diversity) of the samples was also evaluated using the observed OTU number and the estimated OTU numbers by the Chao 1 index (Figure 1b). These analyses demonstrated no significant differences in the species richness among the salivary, GF, or fecal samples. On the other hand, the log CFU bacterial count (mean±s.d., median) quantified by qPCR was 8.70±0.25, 8.69/ml; 7.75±0.57, 7.79/ml; and 10.56±0.26, 10.46/mg in the saliva, GF, and feces, respectively, when examined in 10 randomly selected subjects (Supplementary Figure S1 online). These results suggested that the luminal microbiota in the oral cavity, stomach, and colon consisted of a similar number of species, although the bacterial cell number varied by ~1,000 times with the following order, GF<saliva<feces.

Bottom Line: The objective of this study was to investigate comparatively the influence of proton-pump inhibitors (PPI) administration on three bacterial communities in the oral cavity, stomach, and colon along the alimentary tract.In the comparison between PPI-users and PPI-nonusers, a bacterial cell number increase of ~1,000 times was found in the GF of PPI-users using culturing methods, whereas the bacterial number and composition were nearly identical between the two groups using quantitative PCR and a similarity search based on 16S profiling.The biological significance of the increase in beta diversity by PPI administration remains unclear.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] Laboratory for Infectious Diseases, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Japan [2] Department of General Medicine, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Japan.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate comparatively the influence of proton-pump inhibitors (PPI) administration on three bacterial communities in the oral cavity, stomach, and colon along the alimentary tract.

Methods: Forty-five subjects including 18 patients taking PPI were enrolled. Stimulated saliva, gastric fluid (GF), and feces were obtained from each subject for the microbiota analysis through bacterial 16S rRNA gene profiling using the pyrosequencing method.

Results: The species richness (alpha diversity) was similar among these three microbiota, whereas the interindividual diversity (beta diversity) was much higher in the fecal microbiota compared with that in the others. The UniFrac analysis indicated that the salivary and GF microbiota were similar to one another; however, both differed greatly from the fecal microbiota in the overall bacterial community structure. In the comparison between PPI-users and PPI-nonusers, a bacterial cell number increase of ~1,000 times was found in the GF of PPI-users using culturing methods, whereas the bacterial number and composition were nearly identical between the two groups using quantitative PCR and a similarity search based on 16S profiling. The beta diversity significantly increased in both the salivary and GF microbiota of PPI-users compared with PPI-nonusers.

Conclusions: These results suggest that the GF microbiota has recently moved from the saliva. Bacterial overgrowth in the GF by PPI administration may be due to a lack of killing rather than proliferation of the bacteria in the acid-suppressed stomach. The biological significance of the increase in beta diversity by PPI administration remains unclear.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus