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The Influence of the Gut Microbiome on Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome and Gastrointestinal Disease.

Parekh PJ, Balart LA, Johnson DA - Clin Transl Gastroenterol (2015)

Bottom Line: It is thought that disruptions in this fine balance contribute/account for the pathogenesis of many diseases.Emerging data has linked intestinal dysbiosis to several gastrointestinal diseases including inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and gastrointestinal malignancy.Based on current available data, the role of microbial manipulation in disease management remains to be further defined and a focus for further clinical investigation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.

ABSTRACT
There is a fine balance in the mutual relationship between the intestinal microbiota and its mammalian host. It is thought that disruptions in this fine balance contribute/account for the pathogenesis of many diseases. Recently, the significance of the relationship between gut microbiota and its mammalian host in the pathogenesis of obesity and the metabolic syndrome has been demonstrated. Emerging data has linked intestinal dysbiosis to several gastrointestinal diseases including inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and gastrointestinal malignancy. This article is intended to review the role of gut microbiota maintenance/alterations of gut microbiota as a significant factor as a significant factor discriminating between health and common diseases. Based on current available data, the role of microbial manipulation in disease management remains to be further defined and a focus for further clinical investigation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Gut microbiota and its influence on esophageal adenocarcinoma. Type-microbiota (Gram-positive predominant) with H. pylori provides a neutral esophageal environment. Type-II microbiota (Gram-negative predominant) with loss of H. pylori invokes a pro-inflammatory state in two ways. First, loss of H. pylori allow for increased acid secretion resulting in gastroesophageal reflux disease and its sequelae. Second, predominance of Gram-positive bacteria upregulate the pro-inflammatory cascade due to the interaction between lipopolysaccharide and Toll-like receptor 4.
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fig3: Gut microbiota and its influence on esophageal adenocarcinoma. Type-microbiota (Gram-positive predominant) with H. pylori provides a neutral esophageal environment. Type-II microbiota (Gram-negative predominant) with loss of H. pylori invokes a pro-inflammatory state in two ways. First, loss of H. pylori allow for increased acid secretion resulting in gastroesophageal reflux disease and its sequelae. Second, predominance of Gram-positive bacteria upregulate the pro-inflammatory cascade due to the interaction between lipopolysaccharide and Toll-like receptor 4.

Mentions: There are several mechanisms accounting for the role of dysbiosis in the pathogenesis of reflux-related disorders. Gram-negative organisms (type II microbiome) induce a pro-inflammatory signaling cascade by way of LPS, TLR4, and NFκB.158 The downstream result is an increase in levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, namely IL1β, IL6, IL8, and TNF-α. Additionally, LPS found on Gram-negative bacteria upregulate nitric oxide synthase, which in turn decreases the lower esophageal sphincter.159 This ultimately increases the risk of reflux and resultant esophagitis and eventual metaplasia. Figure 3 is a schematic representation of the microbiome impact on the pathogenesis of esophageal adenocarcinoma.


The Influence of the Gut Microbiome on Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome and Gastrointestinal Disease.

Parekh PJ, Balart LA, Johnson DA - Clin Transl Gastroenterol (2015)

Gut microbiota and its influence on esophageal adenocarcinoma. Type-microbiota (Gram-positive predominant) with H. pylori provides a neutral esophageal environment. Type-II microbiota (Gram-negative predominant) with loss of H. pylori invokes a pro-inflammatory state in two ways. First, loss of H. pylori allow for increased acid secretion resulting in gastroesophageal reflux disease and its sequelae. Second, predominance of Gram-positive bacteria upregulate the pro-inflammatory cascade due to the interaction between lipopolysaccharide and Toll-like receptor 4.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4816244&req=5

fig3: Gut microbiota and its influence on esophageal adenocarcinoma. Type-microbiota (Gram-positive predominant) with H. pylori provides a neutral esophageal environment. Type-II microbiota (Gram-negative predominant) with loss of H. pylori invokes a pro-inflammatory state in two ways. First, loss of H. pylori allow for increased acid secretion resulting in gastroesophageal reflux disease and its sequelae. Second, predominance of Gram-positive bacteria upregulate the pro-inflammatory cascade due to the interaction between lipopolysaccharide and Toll-like receptor 4.
Mentions: There are several mechanisms accounting for the role of dysbiosis in the pathogenesis of reflux-related disorders. Gram-negative organisms (type II microbiome) induce a pro-inflammatory signaling cascade by way of LPS, TLR4, and NFκB.158 The downstream result is an increase in levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, namely IL1β, IL6, IL8, and TNF-α. Additionally, LPS found on Gram-negative bacteria upregulate nitric oxide synthase, which in turn decreases the lower esophageal sphincter.159 This ultimately increases the risk of reflux and resultant esophagitis and eventual metaplasia. Figure 3 is a schematic representation of the microbiome impact on the pathogenesis of esophageal adenocarcinoma.

Bottom Line: It is thought that disruptions in this fine balance contribute/account for the pathogenesis of many diseases.Emerging data has linked intestinal dysbiosis to several gastrointestinal diseases including inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and gastrointestinal malignancy.Based on current available data, the role of microbial manipulation in disease management remains to be further defined and a focus for further clinical investigation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.

ABSTRACT
There is a fine balance in the mutual relationship between the intestinal microbiota and its mammalian host. It is thought that disruptions in this fine balance contribute/account for the pathogenesis of many diseases. Recently, the significance of the relationship between gut microbiota and its mammalian host in the pathogenesis of obesity and the metabolic syndrome has been demonstrated. Emerging data has linked intestinal dysbiosis to several gastrointestinal diseases including inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and gastrointestinal malignancy. This article is intended to review the role of gut microbiota maintenance/alterations of gut microbiota as a significant factor as a significant factor discriminating between health and common diseases. Based on current available data, the role of microbial manipulation in disease management remains to be further defined and a focus for further clinical investigation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus