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Long-term Changes in Extreme Air Pollution Meteorology and the Implications for Air Quality.

Hou P, Wu S - Sci Rep (2016)

Bottom Line: We have identified significant increasing trends for the occurrences of extreme air pollution meteorological events in the past six decades, especially over the continental regions.Statistical analysis combining air quality data and meteorological data further indicates strong sensitivities of air quality (including both average air pollutant concentrations and high pollution episodes) to extreme meteorological events.We have also identified significant seasonal and spatial variations in the sensitivity of air quality to extreme air pollution meteorology.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Atmospheric Sciences Program, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI, 49931, USA.

ABSTRACT
Extreme air pollution meteorological events, such as heat waves, temperature inversions and atmospheric stagnation episodes, can significantly affect air quality. Based on observational data, we have analyzed the long-term evolution of extreme air pollution meteorology on the global scale and their potential impacts on air quality, especially the high pollution episodes. We have identified significant increasing trends for the occurrences of extreme air pollution meteorological events in the past six decades, especially over the continental regions. Statistical analysis combining air quality data and meteorological data further indicates strong sensitivities of air quality (including both average air pollutant concentrations and high pollution episodes) to extreme meteorological events. For example, we find that in the United States the probability of severe ozone pollution when there are heat waves could be up to seven times of the average probability during summertime, while temperature inversions in wintertime could enhance the probability of severe particulate matter pollution by more than a factor of two. We have also identified significant seasonal and spatial variations in the sensitivity of air quality to extreme air pollution meteorology.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Enhancements in the probability of high pollution episodes by extreme air pollution meteorological events for different states and regions in the United States.Shown as the impact factor for (a) summer ozone by state; (b) summer ozone by region; (c) winter PM2.5 by state; and (d) winter PM2.5 by region associated with various meteorological events (heat waves, temperature inversions and atmospheric stagnation episodes; indicated by the green, orange and blue bars respectively). The impact factor is defined as the enhancement in the probability of high pollution episodes due to extreme meteorological events. Background color indicates the mean concentration for that pollutant. Bar plots for the 4 smallest states (includes District of Columbia, Rhode Island, Delaware and Connecticut) are omitted to increase accessibility. (Map is generated with ArcGIS 10.2.2 [URL: http://www.esri.com/software/arcgis/arcgis-for-desktop]).
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f5: Enhancements in the probability of high pollution episodes by extreme air pollution meteorological events for different states and regions in the United States.Shown as the impact factor for (a) summer ozone by state; (b) summer ozone by region; (c) winter PM2.5 by state; and (d) winter PM2.5 by region associated with various meteorological events (heat waves, temperature inversions and atmospheric stagnation episodes; indicated by the green, orange and blue bars respectively). The impact factor is defined as the enhancement in the probability of high pollution episodes due to extreme meteorological events. Background color indicates the mean concentration for that pollutant. Bar plots for the 4 smallest states (includes District of Columbia, Rhode Island, Delaware and Connecticut) are omitted to increase accessibility. (Map is generated with ArcGIS 10.2.2 [URL: http://www.esri.com/software/arcgis/arcgis-for-desktop]).

Mentions: For a specific air pollutant (i.e. ozone or PM2.5), we define the high pollution days as the top 10% most polluted days for each season and examine their sensitivities to various extreme air pollution meteorological events. To better quantify the impacts from extreme events on high pollution episodes and their relative importance, we define an impact factor as the enhancement in the probability of high pollution episodes due to extreme meteorological events (see Methods section for details). The impact factors for high ozone pollution days in summer associated with the three types of extreme events on state level are shown in Fig. 5a,c and similarly the impact factors for different regions in the United States are shown in Fig. 5b,d.


Long-term Changes in Extreme Air Pollution Meteorology and the Implications for Air Quality.

Hou P, Wu S - Sci Rep (2016)

Enhancements in the probability of high pollution episodes by extreme air pollution meteorological events for different states and regions in the United States.Shown as the impact factor for (a) summer ozone by state; (b) summer ozone by region; (c) winter PM2.5 by state; and (d) winter PM2.5 by region associated with various meteorological events (heat waves, temperature inversions and atmospheric stagnation episodes; indicated by the green, orange and blue bars respectively). The impact factor is defined as the enhancement in the probability of high pollution episodes due to extreme meteorological events. Background color indicates the mean concentration for that pollutant. Bar plots for the 4 smallest states (includes District of Columbia, Rhode Island, Delaware and Connecticut) are omitted to increase accessibility. (Map is generated with ArcGIS 10.2.2 [URL: http://www.esri.com/software/arcgis/arcgis-for-desktop]).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4815017&req=5

f5: Enhancements in the probability of high pollution episodes by extreme air pollution meteorological events for different states and regions in the United States.Shown as the impact factor for (a) summer ozone by state; (b) summer ozone by region; (c) winter PM2.5 by state; and (d) winter PM2.5 by region associated with various meteorological events (heat waves, temperature inversions and atmospheric stagnation episodes; indicated by the green, orange and blue bars respectively). The impact factor is defined as the enhancement in the probability of high pollution episodes due to extreme meteorological events. Background color indicates the mean concentration for that pollutant. Bar plots for the 4 smallest states (includes District of Columbia, Rhode Island, Delaware and Connecticut) are omitted to increase accessibility. (Map is generated with ArcGIS 10.2.2 [URL: http://www.esri.com/software/arcgis/arcgis-for-desktop]).
Mentions: For a specific air pollutant (i.e. ozone or PM2.5), we define the high pollution days as the top 10% most polluted days for each season and examine their sensitivities to various extreme air pollution meteorological events. To better quantify the impacts from extreme events on high pollution episodes and their relative importance, we define an impact factor as the enhancement in the probability of high pollution episodes due to extreme meteorological events (see Methods section for details). The impact factors for high ozone pollution days in summer associated with the three types of extreme events on state level are shown in Fig. 5a,c and similarly the impact factors for different regions in the United States are shown in Fig. 5b,d.

Bottom Line: We have identified significant increasing trends for the occurrences of extreme air pollution meteorological events in the past six decades, especially over the continental regions.Statistical analysis combining air quality data and meteorological data further indicates strong sensitivities of air quality (including both average air pollutant concentrations and high pollution episodes) to extreme meteorological events.We have also identified significant seasonal and spatial variations in the sensitivity of air quality to extreme air pollution meteorology.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Atmospheric Sciences Program, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI, 49931, USA.

ABSTRACT
Extreme air pollution meteorological events, such as heat waves, temperature inversions and atmospheric stagnation episodes, can significantly affect air quality. Based on observational data, we have analyzed the long-term evolution of extreme air pollution meteorology on the global scale and their potential impacts on air quality, especially the high pollution episodes. We have identified significant increasing trends for the occurrences of extreme air pollution meteorological events in the past six decades, especially over the continental regions. Statistical analysis combining air quality data and meteorological data further indicates strong sensitivities of air quality (including both average air pollutant concentrations and high pollution episodes) to extreme meteorological events. For example, we find that in the United States the probability of severe ozone pollution when there are heat waves could be up to seven times of the average probability during summertime, while temperature inversions in wintertime could enhance the probability of severe particulate matter pollution by more than a factor of two. We have also identified significant seasonal and spatial variations in the sensitivity of air quality to extreme air pollution meteorology.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus