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Exploring the Homeostatic and Sensory Roles of the Immune System.

Marques RE, Marques PE, Guabiraba R, Teixeira MM - Front Immunol (2016)

Bottom Line: Immunology developed under the notion of the immune system exists to fight pathogens.Here, we argue that the immune system has major physiological roles extending far beyond defending the host.The inference with the immune system collects, interprets, and stores information, while creating an identity of self, places it in close relationship to the nervous system, which suggests that these systems may have a profound evolutionary connection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Immunopharmacology, Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais , Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais , Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Immunology developed under the notion of the immune system exists to fight pathogens. Recently, the discovery of interactions with commensal microbiota that are essential to human health initiated a change in this old paradigm. Here, we argue that the immune system has major physiological roles extending far beyond defending the host. Immune and inflammatory responses share the core property of sensing, defining the immune system also as a sensory system. The inference with the immune system collects, interprets, and stores information, while creating an identity of self, places it in close relationship to the nervous system, which suggests that these systems may have a profound evolutionary connection.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Disease is a rare manifestation. Biomedical research is biased toward disease, although disease does not represent homeostasis in the vertebrate host. Inflammation occurs at a graded spectrum, thus the immune system must operate in such spectrum. The pyramid estimates the proportion of immune responses that go unnoticed by current experimental techniques in cold colors, in comparison to less frequent immune responses in the context of disease, in warm colors. In the left side, immune responses are categorized by abundance and intensity, whereas, in the right side, the categories of inflammation are depicted.
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Figure 2: Disease is a rare manifestation. Biomedical research is biased toward disease, although disease does not represent homeostasis in the vertebrate host. Inflammation occurs at a graded spectrum, thus the immune system must operate in such spectrum. The pyramid estimates the proportion of immune responses that go unnoticed by current experimental techniques in cold colors, in comparison to less frequent immune responses in the context of disease, in warm colors. In the left side, immune responses are categorized by abundance and intensity, whereas, in the right side, the categories of inflammation are depicted.

Mentions: According to Chovatiya and Medzhitov, inflammation is believed to occur at a graded spectrum in the vertebrate host, ranging from a homeostatic state, stress response, parainflammation, and, finally, traditional inflammation (18). The most subtle, initial inflammatory states are undetectable in light of current techniques. The immune system might therefore be considered to operate at such wide spectrum, being the immune response the extreme effort from the system to return the host to homeostasis, for example, at the onset of disease. With this in mind, one should consider that the majority of processes dealt by the immune system go unnoticed by biomedical scientists (Figure 2). The immune system has been implicated in various biological processes, indicating that it may operate together with other body systems. Recently, evidence linking the immune system to metabolism (25) and circadian cycle (26) exemplify how it is entangled in day-to-day physiological processes.


Exploring the Homeostatic and Sensory Roles of the Immune System.

Marques RE, Marques PE, Guabiraba R, Teixeira MM - Front Immunol (2016)

Disease is a rare manifestation. Biomedical research is biased toward disease, although disease does not represent homeostasis in the vertebrate host. Inflammation occurs at a graded spectrum, thus the immune system must operate in such spectrum. The pyramid estimates the proportion of immune responses that go unnoticed by current experimental techniques in cold colors, in comparison to less frequent immune responses in the context of disease, in warm colors. In the left side, immune responses are categorized by abundance and intensity, whereas, in the right side, the categories of inflammation are depicted.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4814584&req=5

Figure 2: Disease is a rare manifestation. Biomedical research is biased toward disease, although disease does not represent homeostasis in the vertebrate host. Inflammation occurs at a graded spectrum, thus the immune system must operate in such spectrum. The pyramid estimates the proportion of immune responses that go unnoticed by current experimental techniques in cold colors, in comparison to less frequent immune responses in the context of disease, in warm colors. In the left side, immune responses are categorized by abundance and intensity, whereas, in the right side, the categories of inflammation are depicted.
Mentions: According to Chovatiya and Medzhitov, inflammation is believed to occur at a graded spectrum in the vertebrate host, ranging from a homeostatic state, stress response, parainflammation, and, finally, traditional inflammation (18). The most subtle, initial inflammatory states are undetectable in light of current techniques. The immune system might therefore be considered to operate at such wide spectrum, being the immune response the extreme effort from the system to return the host to homeostasis, for example, at the onset of disease. With this in mind, one should consider that the majority of processes dealt by the immune system go unnoticed by biomedical scientists (Figure 2). The immune system has been implicated in various biological processes, indicating that it may operate together with other body systems. Recently, evidence linking the immune system to metabolism (25) and circadian cycle (26) exemplify how it is entangled in day-to-day physiological processes.

Bottom Line: Immunology developed under the notion of the immune system exists to fight pathogens.Here, we argue that the immune system has major physiological roles extending far beyond defending the host.The inference with the immune system collects, interprets, and stores information, while creating an identity of self, places it in close relationship to the nervous system, which suggests that these systems may have a profound evolutionary connection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Immunopharmacology, Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais , Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais , Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Immunology developed under the notion of the immune system exists to fight pathogens. Recently, the discovery of interactions with commensal microbiota that are essential to human health initiated a change in this old paradigm. Here, we argue that the immune system has major physiological roles extending far beyond defending the host. Immune and inflammatory responses share the core property of sensing, defining the immune system also as a sensory system. The inference with the immune system collects, interprets, and stores information, while creating an identity of self, places it in close relationship to the nervous system, which suggests that these systems may have a profound evolutionary connection.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus