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High-sensitivity acoustic sensors from nanofibre webs

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ABSTRACT

Considerable interest has been devoted to converting mechanical energy into electricity using polymer nanofibres. In particular, piezoelectric nanofibres produced by electrospinning have shown remarkable mechanical energy-to-electricity conversion ability. However, there is little data for the acoustic-to-electric conversion of electrospun nanofibres. Here we show that electrospun piezoelectric nanofibre webs have a strong acoustic-to-electric conversion ability. Using poly(vinylidene fluoride) as a model polymer and a sensor device that transfers sound directly to the nanofibre layer, we show that the sensor devices can detect low-frequency sound with a sensitivity as high as 266 mV Pa−1. They can precisely distinguish sound waves in low to middle frequency region. These features make them especially suitable for noise detection. Our nanofibre device has more than five times higher sensitivity than a commercial piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) film device. Electrospun piezoelectric nanofibres may be useful for developing high-performance acoustic sensors.

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Sensing resolution and sound detection.Voltage outputs of the nanofibre sensor device under bi-frequency sound waves and the FFT-processed frequency spectrum (a) 190 and 260 Hz, (b) 220.00 and 220.05 Hz (SPL 115 dB for both loudspeakers); (c) voltage outputs of people's voice ‘one, two, three, four, five' and the FFT-processed frequency spectrum (SPL, 70–80 dB). The black, orange, blue, pink and green lines represent voltage outputs (left) and FFT profiles (right) of words ‘one, two, three, four, five', respectively. (d) Sound waveform of the same voice recorded by a commercial microphone and the FFT-processed spectrogram (the colour from blue, pink to red and white in the spectrogram indicates sound intensity increases).
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f3: Sensing resolution and sound detection.Voltage outputs of the nanofibre sensor device under bi-frequency sound waves and the FFT-processed frequency spectrum (a) 190 and 260 Hz, (b) 220.00 and 220.05 Hz (SPL 115 dB for both loudspeakers); (c) voltage outputs of people's voice ‘one, two, three, four, five' and the FFT-processed frequency spectrum (SPL, 70–80 dB). The black, orange, blue, pink and green lines represent voltage outputs (left) and FFT profiles (right) of words ‘one, two, three, four, five', respectively. (d) Sound waveform of the same voice recorded by a commercial microphone and the FFT-processed spectrogram (the colour from blue, pink to red and white in the spectrogram indicates sound intensity increases).

Mentions: The ability to differentiate multiple frequencies of sound is critical for acoustic sensors. To prove this ability, two sound acoustic sources were used to generate bi-frequency sound waves (see the setup in Supplementary Fig. 13). Under two sound waves (190 and 260 Hz), the sensor device showed a voltage output with two amplitude peaks at 190 and 260 Hz after the FFT treatment (Fig. 3a). Similarly, the nanofibre device was also able to distinguish two sound waves with very closer frequencies (220.00 and 220.05 Hz), revealing the excellent detection resolution (Fig. 3b and Supplementary Fig. 14).


High-sensitivity acoustic sensors from nanofibre webs
Sensing resolution and sound detection.Voltage outputs of the nanofibre sensor device under bi-frequency sound waves and the FFT-processed frequency spectrum (a) 190 and 260 Hz, (b) 220.00 and 220.05 Hz (SPL 115 dB for both loudspeakers); (c) voltage outputs of people's voice ‘one, two, three, four, five' and the FFT-processed frequency spectrum (SPL, 70–80 dB). The black, orange, blue, pink and green lines represent voltage outputs (left) and FFT profiles (right) of words ‘one, two, three, four, five', respectively. (d) Sound waveform of the same voice recorded by a commercial microphone and the FFT-processed spectrogram (the colour from blue, pink to red and white in the spectrogram indicates sound intensity increases).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4814578&req=5

f3: Sensing resolution and sound detection.Voltage outputs of the nanofibre sensor device under bi-frequency sound waves and the FFT-processed frequency spectrum (a) 190 and 260 Hz, (b) 220.00 and 220.05 Hz (SPL 115 dB for both loudspeakers); (c) voltage outputs of people's voice ‘one, two, three, four, five' and the FFT-processed frequency spectrum (SPL, 70–80 dB). The black, orange, blue, pink and green lines represent voltage outputs (left) and FFT profiles (right) of words ‘one, two, three, four, five', respectively. (d) Sound waveform of the same voice recorded by a commercial microphone and the FFT-processed spectrogram (the colour from blue, pink to red and white in the spectrogram indicates sound intensity increases).
Mentions: The ability to differentiate multiple frequencies of sound is critical for acoustic sensors. To prove this ability, two sound acoustic sources were used to generate bi-frequency sound waves (see the setup in Supplementary Fig. 13). Under two sound waves (190 and 260 Hz), the sensor device showed a voltage output with two amplitude peaks at 190 and 260 Hz after the FFT treatment (Fig. 3a). Similarly, the nanofibre device was also able to distinguish two sound waves with very closer frequencies (220.00 and 220.05 Hz), revealing the excellent detection resolution (Fig. 3b and Supplementary Fig. 14).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Considerable interest has been devoted to converting mechanical energy into electricity using polymer nanofibres. In particular, piezoelectric nanofibres produced by electrospinning have shown remarkable mechanical energy-to-electricity conversion ability. However, there is little data for the acoustic-to-electric conversion of electrospun nanofibres. Here we show that electrospun piezoelectric nanofibre webs have a strong acoustic-to-electric conversion ability. Using poly(vinylidene fluoride) as a model polymer and a sensor device that transfers sound directly to the nanofibre layer, we show that the sensor devices can detect low-frequency sound with a sensitivity as high as 266 mV Pa−1. They can precisely distinguish sound waves in low to middle frequency region. These features make them especially suitable for noise detection. Our nanofibre device has more than five times higher sensitivity than a commercial piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) film device. Electrospun piezoelectric nanofibres may be useful for developing high-performance acoustic sensors.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus