Limits...
Transcriptome Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes Provides Insight into Stolon Formation in Tulipa edulis.

Miao Y, Zhu Z, Guo Q, Zhu Y, Yang X, Sun Y - Front Plant Sci (2016)

Bottom Line: A functional annotation analysis based on sequence similarity queries of the GO, COG, KEGG databases showed that these DEGs were mainly involved in many physiological and biochemical processes, such as material and energy metabolism, hormone signaling, cell growth, and transcription regulation.In addition, quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the expression patterns of the DEGs were consistent with the transcriptome data, which further supported a role for the DEGs in stolon formation.This study provides novel resources for future genetic and molecular studies in T. edulis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Chinese Medicinal Materials, Nanjing Agricultural University Nanjing, China.

ABSTRACT
Tulipa edulis (Miq.) Baker is an important medicinal plant with a variety of anti-cancer properties. The stolon is one of the main asexual reproductive organs of T. edulis and possesses a unique morphology. To explore the molecular mechanism of stolon formation, we performed an RNA-seq analysis of the transcriptomes of stolons at three developmental stages. In the present study, 15.49 Gb of raw data were generated and assembled into 74,006 unigenes, and a total of 2,811 simple sequence repeats were detected in T. edulis. Among the three libraries of stolons at different developmental stages, there were 5,119 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). A functional annotation analysis based on sequence similarity queries of the GO, COG, KEGG databases showed that these DEGs were mainly involved in many physiological and biochemical processes, such as material and energy metabolism, hormone signaling, cell growth, and transcription regulation. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the expression patterns of the DEGs were consistent with the transcriptome data, which further supported a role for the DEGs in stolon formation. This study provides novel resources for future genetic and molecular studies in T. edulis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Anatomical changes in stolon formation of T. edulis. Abbreviations: MC, meristematic cell; LP, leaf primordium; YL, young leaf; BP, bud primordium; GC, growth cone; PS, procambial strand; B, bud. (A) Meristematic cell and leaf primordium waiting for cell division in the initial period of stolon formation (10×). (B) Meristematic cell waiting for cell division in the initial period of stolon formation (20×). (C) Meristematic cell waiting for cell division in the initial period of stolon formation (40×). (D) Young leaf and bud primordium in the middle period of stolon formation (4×). (E) Growth cone in the middle period of stolon formation (10×). (F) Growth cone in the middle period of stolon formation (20×). (G) Growth cone in the middle period of stolon formation (40×). (H,I) Young leaf in the middle period of stolon formation (10×). (J) Procambial strand in the middle period of stolon formation (20×). (K) Bud in the later period of stolon formation (10×). (L) Growth cone in the later period of stolon formation (10×). (M) Growth cone in the later period of stolon formation (20×). (N) Young leaf in the later period of stolon formation (10×). (O) Procambial strand in the later period of stolon formation (20×).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4814499&req=5

Figure 3: Anatomical changes in stolon formation of T. edulis. Abbreviations: MC, meristematic cell; LP, leaf primordium; YL, young leaf; BP, bud primordium; GC, growth cone; PS, procambial strand; B, bud. (A) Meristematic cell and leaf primordium waiting for cell division in the initial period of stolon formation (10×). (B) Meristematic cell waiting for cell division in the initial period of stolon formation (20×). (C) Meristematic cell waiting for cell division in the initial period of stolon formation (40×). (D) Young leaf and bud primordium in the middle period of stolon formation (4×). (E) Growth cone in the middle period of stolon formation (10×). (F) Growth cone in the middle period of stolon formation (20×). (G) Growth cone in the middle period of stolon formation (40×). (H,I) Young leaf in the middle period of stolon formation (10×). (J) Procambial strand in the middle period of stolon formation (20×). (K) Bud in the later period of stolon formation (10×). (L) Growth cone in the later period of stolon formation (10×). (M) Growth cone in the later period of stolon formation (20×). (N) Young leaf in the later period of stolon formation (10×). (O) Procambial strand in the later period of stolon formation (20×).

Mentions: Optical microscopy revealed the anatomical structure of stolons at different development stages. In T1 (Figures 3A–C), a large number of meristematic cells appeared, preparing for the cell division of stolon formation. The cells surrounding both sides of the leaf primordium are also waiting for cell division. In T2, the cells proceed to periclinal division and anticlinal division processes and differentiate into the growth cone (Figures 3D–G). The leaf primordium cells that surrounded the bud primordium also appeared in a series of division, and the number of cells in the left young leaf increased significantly compared with the T1 stage (Figure 3H). On the right side, along with the increase in the number of young leaf cells, elongation growth occurred and cells formed young leaves (Figure 3I). With the development of the growth cone, the procambial strand was observed (Figure 3J). In T3, bud primordia cells continued to divide, resulting in a substantial increase in the number of cells, and formed a large bud (Figure 3K); within the bud there was a growth cone (Figures 3L,M). Growth cone continued to differentiate and formed the bud primordium or stem primordium (Figure 3M). Cells were arranged slightly loosely in the young leaf on the left side of the bud, and the procambial strand structure became more developed than at the T2 stage (Figures 3N,O). At the T3 stage, stolon elongation typically occurred.


Transcriptome Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes Provides Insight into Stolon Formation in Tulipa edulis.

Miao Y, Zhu Z, Guo Q, Zhu Y, Yang X, Sun Y - Front Plant Sci (2016)

Anatomical changes in stolon formation of T. edulis. Abbreviations: MC, meristematic cell; LP, leaf primordium; YL, young leaf; BP, bud primordium; GC, growth cone; PS, procambial strand; B, bud. (A) Meristematic cell and leaf primordium waiting for cell division in the initial period of stolon formation (10×). (B) Meristematic cell waiting for cell division in the initial period of stolon formation (20×). (C) Meristematic cell waiting for cell division in the initial period of stolon formation (40×). (D) Young leaf and bud primordium in the middle period of stolon formation (4×). (E) Growth cone in the middle period of stolon formation (10×). (F) Growth cone in the middle period of stolon formation (20×). (G) Growth cone in the middle period of stolon formation (40×). (H,I) Young leaf in the middle period of stolon formation (10×). (J) Procambial strand in the middle period of stolon formation (20×). (K) Bud in the later period of stolon formation (10×). (L) Growth cone in the later period of stolon formation (10×). (M) Growth cone in the later period of stolon formation (20×). (N) Young leaf in the later period of stolon formation (10×). (O) Procambial strand in the later period of stolon formation (20×).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4814499&req=5

Figure 3: Anatomical changes in stolon formation of T. edulis. Abbreviations: MC, meristematic cell; LP, leaf primordium; YL, young leaf; BP, bud primordium; GC, growth cone; PS, procambial strand; B, bud. (A) Meristematic cell and leaf primordium waiting for cell division in the initial period of stolon formation (10×). (B) Meristematic cell waiting for cell division in the initial period of stolon formation (20×). (C) Meristematic cell waiting for cell division in the initial period of stolon formation (40×). (D) Young leaf and bud primordium in the middle period of stolon formation (4×). (E) Growth cone in the middle period of stolon formation (10×). (F) Growth cone in the middle period of stolon formation (20×). (G) Growth cone in the middle period of stolon formation (40×). (H,I) Young leaf in the middle period of stolon formation (10×). (J) Procambial strand in the middle period of stolon formation (20×). (K) Bud in the later period of stolon formation (10×). (L) Growth cone in the later period of stolon formation (10×). (M) Growth cone in the later period of stolon formation (20×). (N) Young leaf in the later period of stolon formation (10×). (O) Procambial strand in the later period of stolon formation (20×).
Mentions: Optical microscopy revealed the anatomical structure of stolons at different development stages. In T1 (Figures 3A–C), a large number of meristematic cells appeared, preparing for the cell division of stolon formation. The cells surrounding both sides of the leaf primordium are also waiting for cell division. In T2, the cells proceed to periclinal division and anticlinal division processes and differentiate into the growth cone (Figures 3D–G). The leaf primordium cells that surrounded the bud primordium also appeared in a series of division, and the number of cells in the left young leaf increased significantly compared with the T1 stage (Figure 3H). On the right side, along with the increase in the number of young leaf cells, elongation growth occurred and cells formed young leaves (Figure 3I). With the development of the growth cone, the procambial strand was observed (Figure 3J). In T3, bud primordia cells continued to divide, resulting in a substantial increase in the number of cells, and formed a large bud (Figure 3K); within the bud there was a growth cone (Figures 3L,M). Growth cone continued to differentiate and formed the bud primordium or stem primordium (Figure 3M). Cells were arranged slightly loosely in the young leaf on the left side of the bud, and the procambial strand structure became more developed than at the T2 stage (Figures 3N,O). At the T3 stage, stolon elongation typically occurred.

Bottom Line: A functional annotation analysis based on sequence similarity queries of the GO, COG, KEGG databases showed that these DEGs were mainly involved in many physiological and biochemical processes, such as material and energy metabolism, hormone signaling, cell growth, and transcription regulation.In addition, quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the expression patterns of the DEGs were consistent with the transcriptome data, which further supported a role for the DEGs in stolon formation.This study provides novel resources for future genetic and molecular studies in T. edulis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Chinese Medicinal Materials, Nanjing Agricultural University Nanjing, China.

ABSTRACT
Tulipa edulis (Miq.) Baker is an important medicinal plant with a variety of anti-cancer properties. The stolon is one of the main asexual reproductive organs of T. edulis and possesses a unique morphology. To explore the molecular mechanism of stolon formation, we performed an RNA-seq analysis of the transcriptomes of stolons at three developmental stages. In the present study, 15.49 Gb of raw data were generated and assembled into 74,006 unigenes, and a total of 2,811 simple sequence repeats were detected in T. edulis. Among the three libraries of stolons at different developmental stages, there were 5,119 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). A functional annotation analysis based on sequence similarity queries of the GO, COG, KEGG databases showed that these DEGs were mainly involved in many physiological and biochemical processes, such as material and energy metabolism, hormone signaling, cell growth, and transcription regulation. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the expression patterns of the DEGs were consistent with the transcriptome data, which further supported a role for the DEGs in stolon formation. This study provides novel resources for future genetic and molecular studies in T. edulis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus