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Five-Year-Old Preschoolers' Sharing is Influenced by Anticipated Reciprocation.

Xiong M, Shi J, Wu Z, Zhang Z - Front Psychol (2016)

Bottom Line: Whether children share in anticipation of future benefits returned by a partner is an interesting question.We found that children were more generous when the partner's resources were valued higher.Specifically, they adjust their sharing behavior depending on whether a partner has the potential to reciprocate, and whether it is worth sharing relative to the value of the payback.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology - Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Whether children share in anticipation of future benefits returned by a partner is an interesting question. In this study, 5-year-old children and an adult partner played a sharing game, in which children donated first and the partner donated afterward. In Experiment 1, the partner's resources were more attractive than the child's. In the reciprocal condition, the child was told that s/he would be a recipient when the partner played as a donor. In the non-reciprocal condition, however, the child was told that an anonymous child would be the recipient when the partner donated. Results showed that children shared more with the partner when they knew that they would be a recipient later. In Experiment 2, the child was always the recipient when the partner donated, but the partner's resources were more desirable than the child's in the high-value condition, and less desirable in the low-value condition. We found that children were more generous when the partner's resources were valued higher. These findings demonstrate that 5-year-old preschoolers' sharing choices take into account the anticipated reciprocity of the recipient, suggesting either self-interested tactical sharing or direct reciprocity in advance of receiving. Specifically, they adjust their sharing behavior depending on whether a partner has the potential to reciprocate, and whether it is worth sharing relative to the value of the payback.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Distribution of number of stickers shared in Experiment 1 by condition.
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Figure 2: Distribution of number of stickers shared in Experiment 1 by condition.

Mentions: The data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0 (IBM, Inc., Armonk, NY, USA). The distributions of participants’ sharing in the two conditions are illustrated in Figure 2. We first tested whether the proportion of participants who shared differed between the two conditions. A Fisher’s exact test revealed a significant condition effect, p < 0.001, with more participants shared in the reciprocal condition (29 out of 30 participants) than in the non-reciprocal condition (17 out of 30 participants). Then, we tested whether there was a difference in the mean number of stickers shared between the two conditions. The average number of stickers shared in the two conditions is shown in Figure 3. A 2 (Condition: reciprocal condition vs. non-reciprocal condition) × 2 (Gender: boys vs. girls) analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted with the number of stickers shared as the dependent variable. The result showed a significant main effect of condition, F(1,56) = 32.71, p < 0.001, = 0.37, with more resources shared in the reciprocal condition (M = 3.53, SD = 2.19) than in the non-reciprocal condition (M = 0.93, SD = 1.11). The main effect of gender was not significant, F(1,56) = 0.02, p = 0.88, < 0.001, nor was the interaction of gender × condition, F(1,56) = 0.54, p = 0.47, = 0.01.


Five-Year-Old Preschoolers' Sharing is Influenced by Anticipated Reciprocation.

Xiong M, Shi J, Wu Z, Zhang Z - Front Psychol (2016)

Distribution of number of stickers shared in Experiment 1 by condition.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4814498&req=5

Figure 2: Distribution of number of stickers shared in Experiment 1 by condition.
Mentions: The data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0 (IBM, Inc., Armonk, NY, USA). The distributions of participants’ sharing in the two conditions are illustrated in Figure 2. We first tested whether the proportion of participants who shared differed between the two conditions. A Fisher’s exact test revealed a significant condition effect, p < 0.001, with more participants shared in the reciprocal condition (29 out of 30 participants) than in the non-reciprocal condition (17 out of 30 participants). Then, we tested whether there was a difference in the mean number of stickers shared between the two conditions. The average number of stickers shared in the two conditions is shown in Figure 3. A 2 (Condition: reciprocal condition vs. non-reciprocal condition) × 2 (Gender: boys vs. girls) analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted with the number of stickers shared as the dependent variable. The result showed a significant main effect of condition, F(1,56) = 32.71, p < 0.001, = 0.37, with more resources shared in the reciprocal condition (M = 3.53, SD = 2.19) than in the non-reciprocal condition (M = 0.93, SD = 1.11). The main effect of gender was not significant, F(1,56) = 0.02, p = 0.88, < 0.001, nor was the interaction of gender × condition, F(1,56) = 0.54, p = 0.47, = 0.01.

Bottom Line: Whether children share in anticipation of future benefits returned by a partner is an interesting question.We found that children were more generous when the partner's resources were valued higher.Specifically, they adjust their sharing behavior depending on whether a partner has the potential to reciprocate, and whether it is worth sharing relative to the value of the payback.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology - Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Whether children share in anticipation of future benefits returned by a partner is an interesting question. In this study, 5-year-old children and an adult partner played a sharing game, in which children donated first and the partner donated afterward. In Experiment 1, the partner's resources were more attractive than the child's. In the reciprocal condition, the child was told that s/he would be a recipient when the partner played as a donor. In the non-reciprocal condition, however, the child was told that an anonymous child would be the recipient when the partner donated. Results showed that children shared more with the partner when they knew that they would be a recipient later. In Experiment 2, the child was always the recipient when the partner donated, but the partner's resources were more desirable than the child's in the high-value condition, and less desirable in the low-value condition. We found that children were more generous when the partner's resources were valued higher. These findings demonstrate that 5-year-old preschoolers' sharing choices take into account the anticipated reciprocity of the recipient, suggesting either self-interested tactical sharing or direct reciprocity in advance of receiving. Specifically, they adjust their sharing behavior depending on whether a partner has the potential to reciprocate, and whether it is worth sharing relative to the value of the payback.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus