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Red Seaweeds Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii and Chondrus crispus down Regulate Virulence Factors of Salmonella Enteritidis and Induce Immune Responses in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Kulshreshtha G, Borza T, Rathgeber B, Stratton GS, Thomas NA, Critchley A, Hafting J, Prithiviraj B - Front Microbiol (2016)

Bottom Line: Spread plate assay revealed that SG and CC (1%, w/v) significantly reduced the growth of S.Addition of SWE (0.2 mg/ml, CC and SG) significantly decreased biofilm formation and reduced the motility of S.Enteritidis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Dalhousie UniversityTruro, NS, Canada; Acadian Seaplants LimitedDartmouth, NS, Canada.

ABSTRACT
Red seaweeds are a rich source of unique bioactive compounds and secondary metabolites that are known to improve human and animal health. S. Enteritidis is a broad range host pathogen, which contaminates chicken and poultry products that end into the human food chain. Worldwide, Salmonella outbreaks have become an important economic and public health concern. Moreover, the development of resistance in Salmonella serovars toward multiple drugs highlights the need for alternative control strategies. This study evaluated the antimicrobial property of red seaweeds extracts against Salmonella Enteritidis using the Caenorhabditis elegans infection model. Six red seaweed species were tested for their antimicrobial activity against S. Enteritidis and two, Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG) and Chondrus crispus (CC), were found to exhibit such properties. Spread plate assay revealed that SG and CC (1%, w/v) significantly reduced the growth of S. Enteritidis. Seaweed water extracts (SWE) of SG and CC, at concentrations from 0.4 to 2 mg/ml, significantly reduced the growth of S. Enteritidis (log CFU 4.5-5.3 and log 5.7-6.0, respectively). However, methanolic extracts of CC and SG did not affect the growth of S. Enteritidis. Addition of SWE (0.2 mg/ml, CC and SG) significantly decreased biofilm formation and reduced the motility of S. Enteritidis. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that SWE (CC and SG) suppressed the expression of quorum sensing gene sdiA and of Salmonella Pathogenesis Island-1 (SPI-1) associated genes sipA and invF, indicating that SWE might reduce the invasion of S. Enteritidis in the host by attenuating virulence factors. Furthermore, CC and SG water extracts significantly improved the survival of infected C. elegans by impairing the ability of S. Enteritidis to colonize the digestive tract of the nematode and by enhancing the expression of C. elegans immune responsive genes. As the innate immune response pathways of C. elegans and mammals show a high degree of conservation, these results suggest that these SWE may also impart beneficial effects on animal and human health.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of red seaweeds on the growth of Salmonella Enteritidis growth. Six red seaweed species Chondrus crispus (CC), Gymnogongrus devoniensis (GD), Palmaria palmate (PPMS), Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG), Solieria chordalis (SC), and Sarcodiotheca spp (SUK) were tested against S. Enteritidis. A hundred μl of fresh overnight culture was spread plated on the TSA plates containing ground seaweed (1% w/v). Log CFU/mL was calculated after incubating the plates at 37°C for 24 h. Values with different superscript letters (Tukey multiple mean comparison) are significantly different (one-way Anova; p < 0.05). Values represent mean ± standard deviation from three independent experiments (n = 9).
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Figure 2: Effect of red seaweeds on the growth of Salmonella Enteritidis growth. Six red seaweed species Chondrus crispus (CC), Gymnogongrus devoniensis (GD), Palmaria palmate (PPMS), Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG), Solieria chordalis (SC), and Sarcodiotheca spp (SUK) were tested against S. Enteritidis. A hundred μl of fresh overnight culture was spread plated on the TSA plates containing ground seaweed (1% w/v). Log CFU/mL was calculated after incubating the plates at 37°C for 24 h. Values with different superscript letters (Tukey multiple mean comparison) are significantly different (one-way Anova; p < 0.05). Values represent mean ± standard deviation from three independent experiments (n = 9).

Mentions: To identify the antimicrobial potential of red seaweeds, six selected powdered seaweeds were amended to TSA and tested against S. Enteritidis by spread plate technique. At a concentration of 1% w/v only Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG) and Chondrus crispus (CC) significantly reduced growth of S. Enteritidis (Figure 2); therefore these two seaweeds were selected for all further assays. Water and methanol extracts were prepared from SG and CC and were tested against S. Enteritidis by well diffusion and broth inoculation methods. In well diffusion plate method SG (water extract) inhibited the growth of S. Enteritidis in a concentration dependent manner, i.e., lower at 400 μg/ml mg/ml and higher, at 2 mg/ml with the zone of inhibition increasing from 3 to 13 mm (Figure 3A and Supplementary Table 3). For CC, concentrations of 1 mg/ml and higher (1.6 and 2 mg/ml) were required to generate a clear zone of growth inhibition (4–9 mm) (Figure 3B and Supplementary Table 3). Organic extracts of both SG and CC did not display any antimicrobial activity therefore only water extract was used for all further experiments.


Red Seaweeds Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii and Chondrus crispus down Regulate Virulence Factors of Salmonella Enteritidis and Induce Immune Responses in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Kulshreshtha G, Borza T, Rathgeber B, Stratton GS, Thomas NA, Critchley A, Hafting J, Prithiviraj B - Front Microbiol (2016)

Effect of red seaweeds on the growth of Salmonella Enteritidis growth. Six red seaweed species Chondrus crispus (CC), Gymnogongrus devoniensis (GD), Palmaria palmate (PPMS), Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG), Solieria chordalis (SC), and Sarcodiotheca spp (SUK) were tested against S. Enteritidis. A hundred μl of fresh overnight culture was spread plated on the TSA plates containing ground seaweed (1% w/v). Log CFU/mL was calculated after incubating the plates at 37°C for 24 h. Values with different superscript letters (Tukey multiple mean comparison) are significantly different (one-way Anova; p < 0.05). Values represent mean ± standard deviation from three independent experiments (n = 9).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4814495&req=5

Figure 2: Effect of red seaweeds on the growth of Salmonella Enteritidis growth. Six red seaweed species Chondrus crispus (CC), Gymnogongrus devoniensis (GD), Palmaria palmate (PPMS), Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG), Solieria chordalis (SC), and Sarcodiotheca spp (SUK) were tested against S. Enteritidis. A hundred μl of fresh overnight culture was spread plated on the TSA plates containing ground seaweed (1% w/v). Log CFU/mL was calculated after incubating the plates at 37°C for 24 h. Values with different superscript letters (Tukey multiple mean comparison) are significantly different (one-way Anova; p < 0.05). Values represent mean ± standard deviation from three independent experiments (n = 9).
Mentions: To identify the antimicrobial potential of red seaweeds, six selected powdered seaweeds were amended to TSA and tested against S. Enteritidis by spread plate technique. At a concentration of 1% w/v only Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG) and Chondrus crispus (CC) significantly reduced growth of S. Enteritidis (Figure 2); therefore these two seaweeds were selected for all further assays. Water and methanol extracts were prepared from SG and CC and were tested against S. Enteritidis by well diffusion and broth inoculation methods. In well diffusion plate method SG (water extract) inhibited the growth of S. Enteritidis in a concentration dependent manner, i.e., lower at 400 μg/ml mg/ml and higher, at 2 mg/ml with the zone of inhibition increasing from 3 to 13 mm (Figure 3A and Supplementary Table 3). For CC, concentrations of 1 mg/ml and higher (1.6 and 2 mg/ml) were required to generate a clear zone of growth inhibition (4–9 mm) (Figure 3B and Supplementary Table 3). Organic extracts of both SG and CC did not display any antimicrobial activity therefore only water extract was used for all further experiments.

Bottom Line: Spread plate assay revealed that SG and CC (1%, w/v) significantly reduced the growth of S.Addition of SWE (0.2 mg/ml, CC and SG) significantly decreased biofilm formation and reduced the motility of S.Enteritidis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Dalhousie UniversityTruro, NS, Canada; Acadian Seaplants LimitedDartmouth, NS, Canada.

ABSTRACT
Red seaweeds are a rich source of unique bioactive compounds and secondary metabolites that are known to improve human and animal health. S. Enteritidis is a broad range host pathogen, which contaminates chicken and poultry products that end into the human food chain. Worldwide, Salmonella outbreaks have become an important economic and public health concern. Moreover, the development of resistance in Salmonella serovars toward multiple drugs highlights the need for alternative control strategies. This study evaluated the antimicrobial property of red seaweeds extracts against Salmonella Enteritidis using the Caenorhabditis elegans infection model. Six red seaweed species were tested for their antimicrobial activity against S. Enteritidis and two, Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG) and Chondrus crispus (CC), were found to exhibit such properties. Spread plate assay revealed that SG and CC (1%, w/v) significantly reduced the growth of S. Enteritidis. Seaweed water extracts (SWE) of SG and CC, at concentrations from 0.4 to 2 mg/ml, significantly reduced the growth of S. Enteritidis (log CFU 4.5-5.3 and log 5.7-6.0, respectively). However, methanolic extracts of CC and SG did not affect the growth of S. Enteritidis. Addition of SWE (0.2 mg/ml, CC and SG) significantly decreased biofilm formation and reduced the motility of S. Enteritidis. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that SWE (CC and SG) suppressed the expression of quorum sensing gene sdiA and of Salmonella Pathogenesis Island-1 (SPI-1) associated genes sipA and invF, indicating that SWE might reduce the invasion of S. Enteritidis in the host by attenuating virulence factors. Furthermore, CC and SG water extracts significantly improved the survival of infected C. elegans by impairing the ability of S. Enteritidis to colonize the digestive tract of the nematode and by enhancing the expression of C. elegans immune responsive genes. As the innate immune response pathways of C. elegans and mammals show a high degree of conservation, these results suggest that these SWE may also impart beneficial effects on animal and human health.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus