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Nitric Oxide Mitigates Salt Stress by Regulating Levels of Osmolytes and Antioxidant Enzymes in Chickpea.

Ahmad P, Abdel Latef AA, Hashem A, Abd Allah EF, Gucel S, Tran LS - Front Plant Sci (2016)

Bottom Line: This work was designed to evaluate whether external application of nitric oxide (NO) in the form of its donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) could mitigate the deleterious effects of NaCl stress on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants.Furthermore, electrolyte leakage, H2O2 and MDA contents showed decline in salt-stressed plants supplemented with NO as compared with those in NaCl-treated plants alone.Taken together, our results demonstrate that NO has capability to mitigate the adverse effects of high salinity on chickpea plants by improving LRWC, photosynthetic pigment biosyntheses, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidative defense system.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Botany, Sri Pratap College Srinagar, India.

ABSTRACT
This work was designed to evaluate whether external application of nitric oxide (NO) in the form of its donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) could mitigate the deleterious effects of NaCl stress on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants. SNAP (50 μM) was applied to chickpea plants grown under non-saline and saline conditions (50 and 100 mM NaCl). Salt stress inhibited growth and biomass yield, leaf relative water content (LRWC) and chlorophyll content of chickpea plants. High salinity increased electrolyte leakage, carotenoid content and the levels of osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine, soluble proteins and soluble sugars), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase in chickpea plants. Expression of the representative SOD, CAT and APX genes examined was also up-regulated in chickpea plants by salt stress. On the other hand, exogenous application of NO to salinized plants enhanced the growth parameters, LRWC, photosynthetic pigment production and levels of osmolytes, as well as the activities of examined antioxidant enzymes which is correlated with up-regulation of the examined SOD, CAT and APX genes, in comparison with plants treated with NaCl only. Furthermore, electrolyte leakage, H2O2 and MDA contents showed decline in salt-stressed plants supplemented with NO as compared with those in NaCl-treated plants alone. Thus, the exogenous application of NO protected chickpea plants against salt stress-induced oxidative damage by enhancing the biosyntheses of antioxidant enzymes, thereby improving plant growth under saline stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that NO has capability to mitigate the adverse effects of high salinity on chickpea plants by improving LRWC, photosynthetic pigment biosyntheses, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidative defense system.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effects of NO on expression levels of selected SOD, CAT and APX genes in leaves of chickpea plants under salt stress. Data presented are the means ± SEs (n = 5). Different letters indicate significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) among the treatments. T0 (control) = 0 mM NaCl + 0 μM SNAP; T1 = 0 mM NaCl + 50 μM SNAP; T2 = 50 mM NaCl + 0 μM SNAP; T3 = 50 mM NaCl + 50 μM SNAP; T4 = 100 mM NaCl + 0 μM SNAP; T5 = 100 mM NaCl + 50 μM SNAP. REU, relative expression unit.
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Figure 4: Effects of NO on expression levels of selected SOD, CAT and APX genes in leaves of chickpea plants under salt stress. Data presented are the means ± SEs (n = 5). Different letters indicate significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) among the treatments. T0 (control) = 0 mM NaCl + 0 μM SNAP; T1 = 0 mM NaCl + 50 μM SNAP; T2 = 50 mM NaCl + 0 μM SNAP; T3 = 50 mM NaCl + 50 μM SNAP; T4 = 100 mM NaCl + 0 μM SNAP; T5 = 100 mM NaCl + 50 μM SNAP. REU, relative expression unit.

Mentions: The expression of SOD, APX and CAT antioxidant enzymes-related genes in leaves of chickpea plants under high salinity in presence and absence of NO is presented in Figure 4. Expression of selected genes up-regulated under NaCl stress with or without supplementation of exogenous NO. SOD, CAT and APX genes showed up-regulation of 2.15-, 1.81-, and 2.38-fold in chickpea plants of T4 (100 mM NaCl + 0 μM SNAP) treatment, respectively, over T0 (0 mM NaCl + 0 μM SNAP) control. Moreover, supplementation of NO to NaCl-treated plants also displayed a remarkable increase in expression level of SOD (14.42%), CAT (14.63%) and APX (13.50%) in T5-treated plants versus T4-treated ones. Insignificant change in expression level of examined genes was recorded in T1 (0 mM NaCl + 50 μM SNAP)-treated chickpea plants in comparison with T0 control (Figure 4).


Nitric Oxide Mitigates Salt Stress by Regulating Levels of Osmolytes and Antioxidant Enzymes in Chickpea.

Ahmad P, Abdel Latef AA, Hashem A, Abd Allah EF, Gucel S, Tran LS - Front Plant Sci (2016)

Effects of NO on expression levels of selected SOD, CAT and APX genes in leaves of chickpea plants under salt stress. Data presented are the means ± SEs (n = 5). Different letters indicate significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) among the treatments. T0 (control) = 0 mM NaCl + 0 μM SNAP; T1 = 0 mM NaCl + 50 μM SNAP; T2 = 50 mM NaCl + 0 μM SNAP; T3 = 50 mM NaCl + 50 μM SNAP; T4 = 100 mM NaCl + 0 μM SNAP; T5 = 100 mM NaCl + 50 μM SNAP. REU, relative expression unit.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4814448&req=5

Figure 4: Effects of NO on expression levels of selected SOD, CAT and APX genes in leaves of chickpea plants under salt stress. Data presented are the means ± SEs (n = 5). Different letters indicate significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) among the treatments. T0 (control) = 0 mM NaCl + 0 μM SNAP; T1 = 0 mM NaCl + 50 μM SNAP; T2 = 50 mM NaCl + 0 μM SNAP; T3 = 50 mM NaCl + 50 μM SNAP; T4 = 100 mM NaCl + 0 μM SNAP; T5 = 100 mM NaCl + 50 μM SNAP. REU, relative expression unit.
Mentions: The expression of SOD, APX and CAT antioxidant enzymes-related genes in leaves of chickpea plants under high salinity in presence and absence of NO is presented in Figure 4. Expression of selected genes up-regulated under NaCl stress with or without supplementation of exogenous NO. SOD, CAT and APX genes showed up-regulation of 2.15-, 1.81-, and 2.38-fold in chickpea plants of T4 (100 mM NaCl + 0 μM SNAP) treatment, respectively, over T0 (0 mM NaCl + 0 μM SNAP) control. Moreover, supplementation of NO to NaCl-treated plants also displayed a remarkable increase in expression level of SOD (14.42%), CAT (14.63%) and APX (13.50%) in T5-treated plants versus T4-treated ones. Insignificant change in expression level of examined genes was recorded in T1 (0 mM NaCl + 50 μM SNAP)-treated chickpea plants in comparison with T0 control (Figure 4).

Bottom Line: This work was designed to evaluate whether external application of nitric oxide (NO) in the form of its donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) could mitigate the deleterious effects of NaCl stress on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants.Furthermore, electrolyte leakage, H2O2 and MDA contents showed decline in salt-stressed plants supplemented with NO as compared with those in NaCl-treated plants alone.Taken together, our results demonstrate that NO has capability to mitigate the adverse effects of high salinity on chickpea plants by improving LRWC, photosynthetic pigment biosyntheses, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidative defense system.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Botany, Sri Pratap College Srinagar, India.

ABSTRACT
This work was designed to evaluate whether external application of nitric oxide (NO) in the form of its donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) could mitigate the deleterious effects of NaCl stress on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants. SNAP (50 μM) was applied to chickpea plants grown under non-saline and saline conditions (50 and 100 mM NaCl). Salt stress inhibited growth and biomass yield, leaf relative water content (LRWC) and chlorophyll content of chickpea plants. High salinity increased electrolyte leakage, carotenoid content and the levels of osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine, soluble proteins and soluble sugars), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase in chickpea plants. Expression of the representative SOD, CAT and APX genes examined was also up-regulated in chickpea plants by salt stress. On the other hand, exogenous application of NO to salinized plants enhanced the growth parameters, LRWC, photosynthetic pigment production and levels of osmolytes, as well as the activities of examined antioxidant enzymes which is correlated with up-regulation of the examined SOD, CAT and APX genes, in comparison with plants treated with NaCl only. Furthermore, electrolyte leakage, H2O2 and MDA contents showed decline in salt-stressed plants supplemented with NO as compared with those in NaCl-treated plants alone. Thus, the exogenous application of NO protected chickpea plants against salt stress-induced oxidative damage by enhancing the biosyntheses of antioxidant enzymes, thereby improving plant growth under saline stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that NO has capability to mitigate the adverse effects of high salinity on chickpea plants by improving LRWC, photosynthetic pigment biosyntheses, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidative defense system.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus