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Nitric Oxide Mitigates Salt Stress by Regulating Levels of Osmolytes and Antioxidant Enzymes in Chickpea.

Ahmad P, Abdel Latef AA, Hashem A, Abd Allah EF, Gucel S, Tran LS - Front Plant Sci (2016)

Bottom Line: This work was designed to evaluate whether external application of nitric oxide (NO) in the form of its donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) could mitigate the deleterious effects of NaCl stress on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants.Furthermore, electrolyte leakage, H2O2 and MDA contents showed decline in salt-stressed plants supplemented with NO as compared with those in NaCl-treated plants alone.Taken together, our results demonstrate that NO has capability to mitigate the adverse effects of high salinity on chickpea plants by improving LRWC, photosynthetic pigment biosyntheses, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidative defense system.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Botany, Sri Pratap College Srinagar, India.

ABSTRACT
This work was designed to evaluate whether external application of nitric oxide (NO) in the form of its donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) could mitigate the deleterious effects of NaCl stress on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants. SNAP (50 μM) was applied to chickpea plants grown under non-saline and saline conditions (50 and 100 mM NaCl). Salt stress inhibited growth and biomass yield, leaf relative water content (LRWC) and chlorophyll content of chickpea plants. High salinity increased electrolyte leakage, carotenoid content and the levels of osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine, soluble proteins and soluble sugars), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase in chickpea plants. Expression of the representative SOD, CAT and APX genes examined was also up-regulated in chickpea plants by salt stress. On the other hand, exogenous application of NO to salinized plants enhanced the growth parameters, LRWC, photosynthetic pigment production and levels of osmolytes, as well as the activities of examined antioxidant enzymes which is correlated with up-regulation of the examined SOD, CAT and APX genes, in comparison with plants treated with NaCl only. Furthermore, electrolyte leakage, H2O2 and MDA contents showed decline in salt-stressed plants supplemented with NO as compared with those in NaCl-treated plants alone. Thus, the exogenous application of NO protected chickpea plants against salt stress-induced oxidative damage by enhancing the biosyntheses of antioxidant enzymes, thereby improving plant growth under saline stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that NO has capability to mitigate the adverse effects of high salinity on chickpea plants by improving LRWC, photosynthetic pigment biosyntheses, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidative defense system.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effects of NO on (A) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content and (B) malondialdehyde (MDA) content in leaves of chickpea plants under salt stress. Data presented are the means ± SEs (n = 5). Different letters indicate significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) among the treatments. T0 (control) = 0 mM NaCl + 0 μM SNAP; T1 = 0 mM NaCl + 50 μM SNAP; T2 = 50 mM NaCl + 0 μM SNAP; T3 = 50 mM NaCl + 50 μM SNAP; T4 = 100 mM NaCl + 0 μM SNAP; T5 = 100 mM NaCl + 50 μM SNAP. DW, dry weight; FW, fresh weight.
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Figure 2: Effects of NO on (A) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content and (B) malondialdehyde (MDA) content in leaves of chickpea plants under salt stress. Data presented are the means ± SEs (n = 5). Different letters indicate significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) among the treatments. T0 (control) = 0 mM NaCl + 0 μM SNAP; T1 = 0 mM NaCl + 50 μM SNAP; T2 = 50 mM NaCl + 0 μM SNAP; T3 = 50 mM NaCl + 50 μM SNAP; T4 = 100 mM NaCl + 0 μM SNAP; T5 = 100 mM NaCl + 50 μM SNAP. DW, dry weight; FW, fresh weight.

Mentions: The results regarding the impacts of NaCl and NO on H2O2 and MDA contents in chickpea plants are depicted in Figures 2A,B. Increase in H2O2 contents was observed with the raise of NaCl dose applied to chickpea plants (Figure 2A). H2O2 content increased by 83.41 and 184.33% at T2 (50 mM NaCl + 0 μM SNAP) and T4 (100 mM NaCl + 0 μM SNAP), respectively, versus T0 (0 mM NaCl + 0 μM SNAP) control. Supplementation of exogenous NO to NaCl-stressed plants decreased H2O2 content by 30.65% and 33.23% in T3 (50 mM NaCl + 50 μM SNAP) and T5 (100 mM NaCl + 50 μM SNAP) treatments, respectively, as compared with plants treated with NaCl alone (T2 and T4, respectively) (Figure 2A). As for MDA, its content markedly accumulated in salt-stressed chickpea plants in the present study (Figure 2B). An increase by 32.59 and 62.34% in MDA content in T2 and T4 treatments, respectively, was recorded as compared with T0 control. Salt-treated plants supplied with NO showed a decrease by17.90% at T3 and 21.83% at T5 treatments relative to their respective T2 and T4 treatments (Figure 2B). No significant change in H2O2 and MDA contents was noted in T1 (0 mM NaCl + 50 μM SNAP)-treated plants versus T0 control (Figures 2A,B).


Nitric Oxide Mitigates Salt Stress by Regulating Levels of Osmolytes and Antioxidant Enzymes in Chickpea.

Ahmad P, Abdel Latef AA, Hashem A, Abd Allah EF, Gucel S, Tran LS - Front Plant Sci (2016)

Effects of NO on (A) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content and (B) malondialdehyde (MDA) content in leaves of chickpea plants under salt stress. Data presented are the means ± SEs (n = 5). Different letters indicate significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) among the treatments. T0 (control) = 0 mM NaCl + 0 μM SNAP; T1 = 0 mM NaCl + 50 μM SNAP; T2 = 50 mM NaCl + 0 μM SNAP; T3 = 50 mM NaCl + 50 μM SNAP; T4 = 100 mM NaCl + 0 μM SNAP; T5 = 100 mM NaCl + 50 μM SNAP. DW, dry weight; FW, fresh weight.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4814448&req=5

Figure 2: Effects of NO on (A) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content and (B) malondialdehyde (MDA) content in leaves of chickpea plants under salt stress. Data presented are the means ± SEs (n = 5). Different letters indicate significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) among the treatments. T0 (control) = 0 mM NaCl + 0 μM SNAP; T1 = 0 mM NaCl + 50 μM SNAP; T2 = 50 mM NaCl + 0 μM SNAP; T3 = 50 mM NaCl + 50 μM SNAP; T4 = 100 mM NaCl + 0 μM SNAP; T5 = 100 mM NaCl + 50 μM SNAP. DW, dry weight; FW, fresh weight.
Mentions: The results regarding the impacts of NaCl and NO on H2O2 and MDA contents in chickpea plants are depicted in Figures 2A,B. Increase in H2O2 contents was observed with the raise of NaCl dose applied to chickpea plants (Figure 2A). H2O2 content increased by 83.41 and 184.33% at T2 (50 mM NaCl + 0 μM SNAP) and T4 (100 mM NaCl + 0 μM SNAP), respectively, versus T0 (0 mM NaCl + 0 μM SNAP) control. Supplementation of exogenous NO to NaCl-stressed plants decreased H2O2 content by 30.65% and 33.23% in T3 (50 mM NaCl + 50 μM SNAP) and T5 (100 mM NaCl + 50 μM SNAP) treatments, respectively, as compared with plants treated with NaCl alone (T2 and T4, respectively) (Figure 2A). As for MDA, its content markedly accumulated in salt-stressed chickpea plants in the present study (Figure 2B). An increase by 32.59 and 62.34% in MDA content in T2 and T4 treatments, respectively, was recorded as compared with T0 control. Salt-treated plants supplied with NO showed a decrease by17.90% at T3 and 21.83% at T5 treatments relative to their respective T2 and T4 treatments (Figure 2B). No significant change in H2O2 and MDA contents was noted in T1 (0 mM NaCl + 50 μM SNAP)-treated plants versus T0 control (Figures 2A,B).

Bottom Line: This work was designed to evaluate whether external application of nitric oxide (NO) in the form of its donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) could mitigate the deleterious effects of NaCl stress on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants.Furthermore, electrolyte leakage, H2O2 and MDA contents showed decline in salt-stressed plants supplemented with NO as compared with those in NaCl-treated plants alone.Taken together, our results demonstrate that NO has capability to mitigate the adverse effects of high salinity on chickpea plants by improving LRWC, photosynthetic pigment biosyntheses, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidative defense system.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Botany, Sri Pratap College Srinagar, India.

ABSTRACT
This work was designed to evaluate whether external application of nitric oxide (NO) in the form of its donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) could mitigate the deleterious effects of NaCl stress on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants. SNAP (50 μM) was applied to chickpea plants grown under non-saline and saline conditions (50 and 100 mM NaCl). Salt stress inhibited growth and biomass yield, leaf relative water content (LRWC) and chlorophyll content of chickpea plants. High salinity increased electrolyte leakage, carotenoid content and the levels of osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine, soluble proteins and soluble sugars), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase in chickpea plants. Expression of the representative SOD, CAT and APX genes examined was also up-regulated in chickpea plants by salt stress. On the other hand, exogenous application of NO to salinized plants enhanced the growth parameters, LRWC, photosynthetic pigment production and levels of osmolytes, as well as the activities of examined antioxidant enzymes which is correlated with up-regulation of the examined SOD, CAT and APX genes, in comparison with plants treated with NaCl only. Furthermore, electrolyte leakage, H2O2 and MDA contents showed decline in salt-stressed plants supplemented with NO as compared with those in NaCl-treated plants alone. Thus, the exogenous application of NO protected chickpea plants against salt stress-induced oxidative damage by enhancing the biosyntheses of antioxidant enzymes, thereby improving plant growth under saline stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that NO has capability to mitigate the adverse effects of high salinity on chickpea plants by improving LRWC, photosynthetic pigment biosyntheses, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidative defense system.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus