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Candida glabrata Binding to Candida albicans Hyphae Enables Its Development in Oropharyngeal Candidiasis.

Tati S, Davidow P, McCall A, Hwang-Wong E, Rojas IG, Cormack B, Edgerton M - PLoS Pathog. (2016)

Bottom Line: Furthermore, C. glabrata required C. albicans for colonization of tongues, since decreasing C. albicans burden with fluconazole also reduced C. glabrata.C. albicans hyphal wall adhesins Als1 and Als3 were important for in vitro adhesion of C. glabrata and to establish OPC.C. glabrata cell wall protein coding genes EPA8, EPA19, AWP2, AWP7, and CAGL0F00181 were implicated in mediating adhesion to C. albicans hyphae and remarkably, their expression was induced by incubation with germinated C. albicans.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Oral Biology, School of Dental Medicine, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Pathogenic mechanisms of Candida glabrata in oral candidiasis, especially because of its inability to form hyphae, are understudied. Since both Candida albicans and C. glabrata are frequently co-isolated in oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), we examined their co-adhesion in vitro and observed adhesion of C. glabrata only to C. albicans hyphae microscopically. Mice were infected sublingually with C. albicans or C. glabrata individually, or with both species concurrently, to study their ability to cause OPC. Infection with C. glabrata alone resulted in negligible infection of tongues; however, colonization by C. glabrata was increased by co-infection or a pre-established infection with C. albicans. Furthermore, C. glabrata required C. albicans for colonization of tongues, since decreasing C. albicans burden with fluconazole also reduced C. glabrata. C. albicans hyphal wall adhesins Als1 and Als3 were important for in vitro adhesion of C. glabrata and to establish OPC. C. glabrata cell wall protein coding genes EPA8, EPA19, AWP2, AWP7, and CAGL0F00181 were implicated in mediating adhesion to C. albicans hyphae and remarkably, their expression was induced by incubation with germinated C. albicans. Thus, we found a near essential requirement for the presence of C. albicans for both initial colonization and establishment of OPC infection by C. glabrata.

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C. glabrata adheres to C. albicans hyphae.C. albicans germinated or yeast cells were incubated with C. glabrata cells at 1:1 ratio for 60 min. While little adherence of C. glabrata was found with C. albicans yeast, large numbers of C. glabrata CgVSY55 or CgBG2 were found adherent along the length of C. albicans hyphae using fluorescence microscopy (A left panel). Adhesion of along the length of C. albicans hyphae was also found in scanning electron micrograph images of CgVSY55 and CAF2-yCherry (A right panel). Magnifications are 500X (scale bar: 5μm, 20μm). C. glabrata cells adhesion to C. albicans hyphae (10μm length) was quantitated microscopically. Seven wild type strains of C. glabrata were screened for adherence to C. albicans hyphae and grouped as high (CgDSY562), medium (CgBG2, Cg60032, Cg931010) and low (Cg932474, Cg148042, Cg90030) binders. (B).
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ppat.1005522.g002: C. glabrata adheres to C. albicans hyphae.C. albicans germinated or yeast cells were incubated with C. glabrata cells at 1:1 ratio for 60 min. While little adherence of C. glabrata was found with C. albicans yeast, large numbers of C. glabrata CgVSY55 or CgBG2 were found adherent along the length of C. albicans hyphae using fluorescence microscopy (A left panel). Adhesion of along the length of C. albicans hyphae was also found in scanning electron micrograph images of CgVSY55 and CAF2-yCherry (A right panel). Magnifications are 500X (scale bar: 5μm, 20μm). C. glabrata cells adhesion to C. albicans hyphae (10μm length) was quantitated microscopically. Seven wild type strains of C. glabrata were screened for adherence to C. albicans hyphae and grouped as high (CgDSY562), medium (CgBG2, Cg60032, Cg931010) and low (Cg932474, Cg148042, Cg90030) binders. (B).

Mentions: To further examine how these two Candida species might be interacting, we examined their association directly by fluorescence microscopy. C. albicans cells were grown in YNB + 1.25% glucose (for yeast phase cells) or in YNB + 1.25% N-acetyl glucosamine at 37°C (to induce hyphal cells) for 3 h. C. albicans cells were then incubated with C. glabrata cells at 1:1 ratio for 60 min. C. glabrata cells did not adhere with C. albicans yeast cells (Fig 2A, upper left); however they showed strong adhesion along the length of germinated C. albicans hyphae (Fig 2A left). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) further illustrated this interaction showing that C. glabrata cells adhered along the entire length of C. albicans hyphae (Fig 2A right). We observed that C. glabrata cells formed rows of adherent cells along the length of hyphae, but did not adhere to other C. glabrata cells. Next, we quantified adhesion as defined by the number of C. glabrata cells adhering to 10 μm length of C. albicans hyphae in seven different strains of C. glabrata. Among the C. glabrata strains examined, CgDSY56 (the parent strain of CgVSY55) had significantly (P<0.0001) higher adherence (6.4 ± 0.2 cells / 10 μm hyphae, high adherence strain) when compared to other strains tested. CgBG2 and Cg960032 (4.2 ± 0.2 cells / 10 μm hyphae) showed medium adherence; and Cg931010, Cg932474, Cg148042, and Cg90030 showed low adherence (3.0 ± 0.2cells / 10 μm hyphae) (Fig 2B).


Candida glabrata Binding to Candida albicans Hyphae Enables Its Development in Oropharyngeal Candidiasis.

Tati S, Davidow P, McCall A, Hwang-Wong E, Rojas IG, Cormack B, Edgerton M - PLoS Pathog. (2016)

C. glabrata adheres to C. albicans hyphae.C. albicans germinated or yeast cells were incubated with C. glabrata cells at 1:1 ratio for 60 min. While little adherence of C. glabrata was found with C. albicans yeast, large numbers of C. glabrata CgVSY55 or CgBG2 were found adherent along the length of C. albicans hyphae using fluorescence microscopy (A left panel). Adhesion of along the length of C. albicans hyphae was also found in scanning electron micrograph images of CgVSY55 and CAF2-yCherry (A right panel). Magnifications are 500X (scale bar: 5μm, 20μm). C. glabrata cells adhesion to C. albicans hyphae (10μm length) was quantitated microscopically. Seven wild type strains of C. glabrata were screened for adherence to C. albicans hyphae and grouped as high (CgDSY562), medium (CgBG2, Cg60032, Cg931010) and low (Cg932474, Cg148042, Cg90030) binders. (B).
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ppat.1005522.g002: C. glabrata adheres to C. albicans hyphae.C. albicans germinated or yeast cells were incubated with C. glabrata cells at 1:1 ratio for 60 min. While little adherence of C. glabrata was found with C. albicans yeast, large numbers of C. glabrata CgVSY55 or CgBG2 were found adherent along the length of C. albicans hyphae using fluorescence microscopy (A left panel). Adhesion of along the length of C. albicans hyphae was also found in scanning electron micrograph images of CgVSY55 and CAF2-yCherry (A right panel). Magnifications are 500X (scale bar: 5μm, 20μm). C. glabrata cells adhesion to C. albicans hyphae (10μm length) was quantitated microscopically. Seven wild type strains of C. glabrata were screened for adherence to C. albicans hyphae and grouped as high (CgDSY562), medium (CgBG2, Cg60032, Cg931010) and low (Cg932474, Cg148042, Cg90030) binders. (B).
Mentions: To further examine how these two Candida species might be interacting, we examined their association directly by fluorescence microscopy. C. albicans cells were grown in YNB + 1.25% glucose (for yeast phase cells) or in YNB + 1.25% N-acetyl glucosamine at 37°C (to induce hyphal cells) for 3 h. C. albicans cells were then incubated with C. glabrata cells at 1:1 ratio for 60 min. C. glabrata cells did not adhere with C. albicans yeast cells (Fig 2A, upper left); however they showed strong adhesion along the length of germinated C. albicans hyphae (Fig 2A left). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) further illustrated this interaction showing that C. glabrata cells adhered along the entire length of C. albicans hyphae (Fig 2A right). We observed that C. glabrata cells formed rows of adherent cells along the length of hyphae, but did not adhere to other C. glabrata cells. Next, we quantified adhesion as defined by the number of C. glabrata cells adhering to 10 μm length of C. albicans hyphae in seven different strains of C. glabrata. Among the C. glabrata strains examined, CgDSY56 (the parent strain of CgVSY55) had significantly (P<0.0001) higher adherence (6.4 ± 0.2 cells / 10 μm hyphae, high adherence strain) when compared to other strains tested. CgBG2 and Cg960032 (4.2 ± 0.2 cells / 10 μm hyphae) showed medium adherence; and Cg931010, Cg932474, Cg148042, and Cg90030 showed low adherence (3.0 ± 0.2cells / 10 μm hyphae) (Fig 2B).

Bottom Line: Furthermore, C. glabrata required C. albicans for colonization of tongues, since decreasing C. albicans burden with fluconazole also reduced C. glabrata.C. albicans hyphal wall adhesins Als1 and Als3 were important for in vitro adhesion of C. glabrata and to establish OPC.C. glabrata cell wall protein coding genes EPA8, EPA19, AWP2, AWP7, and CAGL0F00181 were implicated in mediating adhesion to C. albicans hyphae and remarkably, their expression was induced by incubation with germinated C. albicans.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Oral Biology, School of Dental Medicine, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Pathogenic mechanisms of Candida glabrata in oral candidiasis, especially because of its inability to form hyphae, are understudied. Since both Candida albicans and C. glabrata are frequently co-isolated in oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), we examined their co-adhesion in vitro and observed adhesion of C. glabrata only to C. albicans hyphae microscopically. Mice were infected sublingually with C. albicans or C. glabrata individually, or with both species concurrently, to study their ability to cause OPC. Infection with C. glabrata alone resulted in negligible infection of tongues; however, colonization by C. glabrata was increased by co-infection or a pre-established infection with C. albicans. Furthermore, C. glabrata required C. albicans for colonization of tongues, since decreasing C. albicans burden with fluconazole also reduced C. glabrata. C. albicans hyphal wall adhesins Als1 and Als3 were important for in vitro adhesion of C. glabrata and to establish OPC. C. glabrata cell wall protein coding genes EPA8, EPA19, AWP2, AWP7, and CAGL0F00181 were implicated in mediating adhesion to C. albicans hyphae and remarkably, their expression was induced by incubation with germinated C. albicans. Thus, we found a near essential requirement for the presence of C. albicans for both initial colonization and establishment of OPC infection by C. glabrata.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus