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'Compromise' in Echolocation Calls between Different Colonies of the Intermediate Leaf-Nosed Bat (Hipposideros larvatus).

Chen Y, Liu Q, Su Q, Sun Y, Peng X, He X, Zhang L - PLoS ONE (2016)

Bottom Line: Each animal population has its own acoustic signature which facilitates identification, communication and reproduction.The sonar signals of bats can convey social information, such as species identity and contextual information.The goal of this study was to determine whether bats adjust their echolocation call structures to mutually recognize and communicate when they encounter the bats from different colonies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Guangdong Entomological Institute, Guangzhou, China.

ABSTRACT
Each animal population has its own acoustic signature which facilitates identification, communication and reproduction. The sonar signals of bats can convey social information, such as species identity and contextual information. The goal of this study was to determine whether bats adjust their echolocation call structures to mutually recognize and communicate when they encounter the bats from different colonies. We used the intermediate leaf-nosed bats (Hipposideros larvatus) as a case study to investigate the variations of echolocation calls when bats from one colony were introduced singly into the home cage of a new colony or two bats from different colonies were cohabitated together for one month. Our experiments showed that the single bat individual altered its peak frequency of echolocation calls to approach the call of new colony members and two bats from different colonies adjusted their call frequencies toward each other to a similar frequency after being chronically cohabitated. These results indicate that the 'compromise' in echolocation calls might be used to ensure effective mutual communication among bats.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Sound spectrograms and power spectrum of echolocation calls of Hipposideros larvatus.a: sound spectrograms of echolocation calls; b: power spectrum of echolocation calls.
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pone.0151382.g001: Sound spectrograms and power spectrum of echolocation calls of Hipposideros larvatus.a: sound spectrograms of echolocation calls; b: power spectrum of echolocation calls.

Mentions: In the present study, the echolocation behavior of the intermediate leaf-nosed bat (Hipposideros larvatus), which is a widespread bat species in the Indo-Malay region (located in Asia with a geographical distribution that includes Bangladesh, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, and north-east India) [22], was investigated while the bats from different colonies converged. The echolocation calls of H. larvatus comprise a CF component that is an important factor to consider when characterizing echolocation strategy in CF-FM bats, followed by a short FM component (Fig 1). Evidence has been obtained to show that the divergence of H. larvatus in call frequency (ranging from 80 to 100 kHz in peak frequency) occurs in allopatry, and this acoustic character displacement is possibly caused by secondary contact to facilitate communication among bats from the same colony, rather than reflect phylogenetic relationships [23]. Acoustic convergence within social groups and differences between groups arise through vocal learning [19], which may coordinate group movements and facilitate mate recognition, and we hypothesized here that social environment may influence acoustic structure of echolocation calls. Bat acoustic signals show individual differences for jamming avoidance during fly [24]; however, group-specific in acoustic characteristics for communication is the premise of group living [20]. Furthermore, jamming avoidance is just a temporary change when bats are flying with other individuals [25], and bats should gradually adapting its pulse acoustics after joining a new group for identification and communication. We thus made the following predictions: (1) single bats should alter their echolocation calls to approach resident calls after entering a new colony and (2) two bats from different colonies cohabitate for a period of time would approximate echolocation calls of each other, by which they facilitate and ensure their mutual communication.


'Compromise' in Echolocation Calls between Different Colonies of the Intermediate Leaf-Nosed Bat (Hipposideros larvatus).

Chen Y, Liu Q, Su Q, Sun Y, Peng X, He X, Zhang L - PLoS ONE (2016)

Sound spectrograms and power spectrum of echolocation calls of Hipposideros larvatus.a: sound spectrograms of echolocation calls; b: power spectrum of echolocation calls.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4814132&req=5

pone.0151382.g001: Sound spectrograms and power spectrum of echolocation calls of Hipposideros larvatus.a: sound spectrograms of echolocation calls; b: power spectrum of echolocation calls.
Mentions: In the present study, the echolocation behavior of the intermediate leaf-nosed bat (Hipposideros larvatus), which is a widespread bat species in the Indo-Malay region (located in Asia with a geographical distribution that includes Bangladesh, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, and north-east India) [22], was investigated while the bats from different colonies converged. The echolocation calls of H. larvatus comprise a CF component that is an important factor to consider when characterizing echolocation strategy in CF-FM bats, followed by a short FM component (Fig 1). Evidence has been obtained to show that the divergence of H. larvatus in call frequency (ranging from 80 to 100 kHz in peak frequency) occurs in allopatry, and this acoustic character displacement is possibly caused by secondary contact to facilitate communication among bats from the same colony, rather than reflect phylogenetic relationships [23]. Acoustic convergence within social groups and differences between groups arise through vocal learning [19], which may coordinate group movements and facilitate mate recognition, and we hypothesized here that social environment may influence acoustic structure of echolocation calls. Bat acoustic signals show individual differences for jamming avoidance during fly [24]; however, group-specific in acoustic characteristics for communication is the premise of group living [20]. Furthermore, jamming avoidance is just a temporary change when bats are flying with other individuals [25], and bats should gradually adapting its pulse acoustics after joining a new group for identification and communication. We thus made the following predictions: (1) single bats should alter their echolocation calls to approach resident calls after entering a new colony and (2) two bats from different colonies cohabitate for a period of time would approximate echolocation calls of each other, by which they facilitate and ensure their mutual communication.

Bottom Line: Each animal population has its own acoustic signature which facilitates identification, communication and reproduction.The sonar signals of bats can convey social information, such as species identity and contextual information.The goal of this study was to determine whether bats adjust their echolocation call structures to mutually recognize and communicate when they encounter the bats from different colonies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Guangdong Entomological Institute, Guangzhou, China.

ABSTRACT
Each animal population has its own acoustic signature which facilitates identification, communication and reproduction. The sonar signals of bats can convey social information, such as species identity and contextual information. The goal of this study was to determine whether bats adjust their echolocation call structures to mutually recognize and communicate when they encounter the bats from different colonies. We used the intermediate leaf-nosed bats (Hipposideros larvatus) as a case study to investigate the variations of echolocation calls when bats from one colony were introduced singly into the home cage of a new colony or two bats from different colonies were cohabitated together for one month. Our experiments showed that the single bat individual altered its peak frequency of echolocation calls to approach the call of new colony members and two bats from different colonies adjusted their call frequencies toward each other to a similar frequency after being chronically cohabitated. These results indicate that the 'compromise' in echolocation calls might be used to ensure effective mutual communication among bats.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus