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Astragalar Morphology of Selected Giraffidae.

Solounias N, Danowitz M - PLoS ONE (2016)

Bottom Line: The giraffid astragalar morphologies reinforce previously established phylogenetic relationships.The sivatheres and the okapi share a reduced notch on the lateral edge of the astragalus.We find that Samotherium is more primitive in astragalar morphologies than Palaeotragus, which is reinforced by tooth characteristics and ossicone position.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, New York Institute of Technology College of Osteopathic Medicine, Old Westbury, NY, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The artiodactyl astragalus has been modified to exhibit two trochleae, creating a double pullied structure allowing for significant dorso-plantar motion, and limited mediolateral motion. The astragalus structure is partly influenced by environmental substrates, and correspondingly, morphometric studies can yield paleohabitat information. The present study establishes terminology and describes detailed morphological features on giraffid astragali. Each giraffid astragalus exhibits a unique combination of anatomical characteristics. The giraffid astragalar morphologies reinforce previously established phylogenetic relationships. We find that the enlargement of the navicular head is a feature shared by all giraffids, and that the primitive giraffids possess exceptionally tall astragalar heads in relation to the total astragalar height. The sivatheres and the okapi share a reduced notch on the lateral edge of the astragalus. We find that Samotherium is more primitive in astragalar morphologies than Palaeotragus, which is reinforced by tooth characteristics and ossicone position. Diagnostic anatomical characters on the astragalus allow for giraffid species identifications and a better understanding of Giraffidae.

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The astragali of representative giraffids in ventral view.Demonstration of a ventral view of representative astragali for all taxa evaluated in this study. Each specimen is isometrically scaled so that all specimens are of equal height. Samotherium major is represented in a box, as it is the baseline astragalus from which all taxa were subsequently compared against.
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pone.0151310.g003: The astragali of representative giraffids in ventral view.Demonstration of a ventral view of representative astragali for all taxa evaluated in this study. Each specimen is isometrically scaled so that all specimens are of equal height. Samotherium major is represented in a box, as it is the baseline astragalus from which all taxa were subsequently compared against.

Mentions: Specimens in bold are represented in Figs 2 and 3.


Astragalar Morphology of Selected Giraffidae.

Solounias N, Danowitz M - PLoS ONE (2016)

The astragali of representative giraffids in ventral view.Demonstration of a ventral view of representative astragali for all taxa evaluated in this study. Each specimen is isometrically scaled so that all specimens are of equal height. Samotherium major is represented in a box, as it is the baseline astragalus from which all taxa were subsequently compared against.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4814102&req=5

pone.0151310.g003: The astragali of representative giraffids in ventral view.Demonstration of a ventral view of representative astragali for all taxa evaluated in this study. Each specimen is isometrically scaled so that all specimens are of equal height. Samotherium major is represented in a box, as it is the baseline astragalus from which all taxa were subsequently compared against.
Mentions: Specimens in bold are represented in Figs 2 and 3.

Bottom Line: The giraffid astragalar morphologies reinforce previously established phylogenetic relationships.The sivatheres and the okapi share a reduced notch on the lateral edge of the astragalus.We find that Samotherium is more primitive in astragalar morphologies than Palaeotragus, which is reinforced by tooth characteristics and ossicone position.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, New York Institute of Technology College of Osteopathic Medicine, Old Westbury, NY, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The artiodactyl astragalus has been modified to exhibit two trochleae, creating a double pullied structure allowing for significant dorso-plantar motion, and limited mediolateral motion. The astragalus structure is partly influenced by environmental substrates, and correspondingly, morphometric studies can yield paleohabitat information. The present study establishes terminology and describes detailed morphological features on giraffid astragali. Each giraffid astragalus exhibits a unique combination of anatomical characteristics. The giraffid astragalar morphologies reinforce previously established phylogenetic relationships. We find that the enlargement of the navicular head is a feature shared by all giraffids, and that the primitive giraffids possess exceptionally tall astragalar heads in relation to the total astragalar height. The sivatheres and the okapi share a reduced notch on the lateral edge of the astragalus. We find that Samotherium is more primitive in astragalar morphologies than Palaeotragus, which is reinforced by tooth characteristics and ossicone position. Diagnostic anatomical characters on the astragalus allow for giraffid species identifications and a better understanding of Giraffidae.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus