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Defensive Traits in Young Pine Trees Cluster into Two Divergent Syndromes Related to Early Growth Rate.

Moreira X, Sampedro L, Zas R, Pearse IS - PLoS ONE (2016)

Bottom Line: Slow-growing pine species living in harsh environments where tissue replacement is costly allocated more to constitutive defenses (energetically more costly to produce than induced).In contrast, fast-growing species living in resource-rich habitats had greater inducibility of their defenses, consistent with the theory of constitutive-induced defense trade-offs.This study contributes to a better understanding of evolutionary and ecological factors driving the deployment of defense syndromes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Misión Biológica de Galicia (MBG-CSIC), Apdo. 28, 36080 Pontevedra, Galicia, Spain.

ABSTRACT
The combination of defensive traits leads to the evolution of 'plant defense syndromes' which should provide better protection against herbivores than individual traits on their own. Defense syndromes can be generally driven by plant phylogeny and/or biotic and abiotic factors. However, we lack a solid understanding of (i) the relative importance of shared evolution vs. convergence due to similar ecological conditions and (ii) the role of induced defense strategies in shaping defense syndromes. We investigate the relative roles of evolutionary and ecological factors shaping the deployment of pine defense syndromes including multiple constitutive and induced chemical defense traits. We performed a greenhouse experiment with seedlings of eighteen species of Pinaceae family, and measured plant growth rate, constitutive chemical defenses and their inducibility. Plant growth rate, but not phylogenetic relatedness, determined the deployment of two divergent syndromes. Slow-growing pine species living in harsh environments where tissue replacement is costly allocated more to constitutive defenses (energetically more costly to produce than induced). In contrast, fast-growing species living in resource-rich habitats had greater inducibility of their defenses, consistent with the theory of constitutive-induced defense trade-offs. This study contributes to a better understanding of evolutionary and ecological factors driving the deployment of defense syndromes.

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Defensive phenogram showing similarity among 18 conifer species of four constitutive defensive traits, four defensive traits induced by the jasmonic acid signaling pathway and four defensive traits induced by the salicylic acid pathway.Closely clustered species show similar integrated defensive phenotypes and form two defense syndromes (Cluster A in red font and Cluster B in black font).
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pone.0152537.g001: Defensive phenogram showing similarity among 18 conifer species of four constitutive defensive traits, four defensive traits induced by the jasmonic acid signaling pathway and four defensive traits induced by the salicylic acid pathway.Closely clustered species show similar integrated defensive phenotypes and form two defense syndromes (Cluster A in red font and Cluster B in black font).

Mentions: Firstly, by using a hierarchical cluster analysis of constitutive defensive traits and their induciblity by JA and SA we identified two distinct clusters (i.e. two defense syndromes, Fig 1, Table 1). The first syndrome (Cluster A in Fig 1) represented conifer species (n = 9) with high levels of constitutive resin in the needles and stem (Table 1). The second syndrome (Cluster B in Fig 1) represented conifer species (n = 9) with high inducibility of resin and phenolics in the needles by both JA and SA pathways (Table 1).


Defensive Traits in Young Pine Trees Cluster into Two Divergent Syndromes Related to Early Growth Rate.

Moreira X, Sampedro L, Zas R, Pearse IS - PLoS ONE (2016)

Defensive phenogram showing similarity among 18 conifer species of four constitutive defensive traits, four defensive traits induced by the jasmonic acid signaling pathway and four defensive traits induced by the salicylic acid pathway.Closely clustered species show similar integrated defensive phenotypes and form two defense syndromes (Cluster A in red font and Cluster B in black font).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4814073&req=5

pone.0152537.g001: Defensive phenogram showing similarity among 18 conifer species of four constitutive defensive traits, four defensive traits induced by the jasmonic acid signaling pathway and four defensive traits induced by the salicylic acid pathway.Closely clustered species show similar integrated defensive phenotypes and form two defense syndromes (Cluster A in red font and Cluster B in black font).
Mentions: Firstly, by using a hierarchical cluster analysis of constitutive defensive traits and their induciblity by JA and SA we identified two distinct clusters (i.e. two defense syndromes, Fig 1, Table 1). The first syndrome (Cluster A in Fig 1) represented conifer species (n = 9) with high levels of constitutive resin in the needles and stem (Table 1). The second syndrome (Cluster B in Fig 1) represented conifer species (n = 9) with high inducibility of resin and phenolics in the needles by both JA and SA pathways (Table 1).

Bottom Line: Slow-growing pine species living in harsh environments where tissue replacement is costly allocated more to constitutive defenses (energetically more costly to produce than induced).In contrast, fast-growing species living in resource-rich habitats had greater inducibility of their defenses, consistent with the theory of constitutive-induced defense trade-offs.This study contributes to a better understanding of evolutionary and ecological factors driving the deployment of defense syndromes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Misión Biológica de Galicia (MBG-CSIC), Apdo. 28, 36080 Pontevedra, Galicia, Spain.

ABSTRACT
The combination of defensive traits leads to the evolution of 'plant defense syndromes' which should provide better protection against herbivores than individual traits on their own. Defense syndromes can be generally driven by plant phylogeny and/or biotic and abiotic factors. However, we lack a solid understanding of (i) the relative importance of shared evolution vs. convergence due to similar ecological conditions and (ii) the role of induced defense strategies in shaping defense syndromes. We investigate the relative roles of evolutionary and ecological factors shaping the deployment of pine defense syndromes including multiple constitutive and induced chemical defense traits. We performed a greenhouse experiment with seedlings of eighteen species of Pinaceae family, and measured plant growth rate, constitutive chemical defenses and their inducibility. Plant growth rate, but not phylogenetic relatedness, determined the deployment of two divergent syndromes. Slow-growing pine species living in harsh environments where tissue replacement is costly allocated more to constitutive defenses (energetically more costly to produce than induced). In contrast, fast-growing species living in resource-rich habitats had greater inducibility of their defenses, consistent with the theory of constitutive-induced defense trade-offs. This study contributes to a better understanding of evolutionary and ecological factors driving the deployment of defense syndromes.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus