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Ocean Acidification and Increased Temperature Have Both Positive and Negative Effects on Early Ontogenetic Traits of a Rocky Shore Keystone Predator Species.

Manríquez PH, Jara ME, Seguel ME, Torres R, Alarcon E, Lee MR - PLoS ONE (2016)

Bottom Line: High tenacity and fast self-righting would reduce predation risk in nature and might compensate for the negative effects of high pCO2 levels on other important defensive traits such as shell size and escape behaviour.We conclude that climate change might produce in C. concholepas positive and negative effects in physiology and behaviour.Moreover, we conclude that positive behavioural responses may assist in the adaptation to negative physiological impacts, and that this may also be the case for other benthic organisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratorio de Ecología y Conducta de la Ontogenia Temprana (LECOT), Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas (CEAZA), Coquimbo, Chile.

ABSTRACT
The combined effect of ocean acidification and warming is expected to have significant effects on several traits of marine organisms. The gastropod Concholepas concholepas is a rocky shore keystone predator characteristic of the south-eastern Pacific coast of South America and an important natural resource exploited by small-scale artisanal fishermen along the coast of Chile and Peru. In this study, we used small juveniles of C. concholepas collected from the rocky intertidal habitats of southern Chile (39 °S) to evaluate under laboratory conditions the potential consequences of projected near-future levels of ocean acidification and warming for important early ontogenetic traits. The individuals were exposed long-term (5.8 months) to contrasting pCO2 (ca. 500 and 1400 μatm) and temperature (15 and 19 °C) levels. After this period we compared body growth traits, dislodgement resistance, predator-escape response, self-righting and metabolic rates. With respect to these traits there was no evidence of a synergistic interaction between pCO2 and temperature. Shell growth was negatively affected by high pCO2 levels only at 15 °C. High pCO2 levels also had a negative effect on the predator-escape response. Conversely, dislodgement resistance and self-righting were positively affected by high pCO2 levels at both temperatures. High tenacity and fast self-righting would reduce predation risk in nature and might compensate for the negative effects of high pCO2 levels on other important defensive traits such as shell size and escape behaviour. We conclude that climate change might produce in C. concholepas positive and negative effects in physiology and behaviour. In fact, some of the behavioural responses might be a consequence of physiological effects, such as changes in chemosensory capacity (e.g. predator-escape response) or secretion of adhesive mucous (e.g. dislodgement resistance). Moreover, we conclude that positive behavioural responses may assist in the adaptation to negative physiological impacts, and that this may also be the case for other benthic organisms.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Concholepas concholepas.Effect of two different levels of pCO2 and temperature on the (mean ± SE) (a) self-righting time and (b) force required to dislodge small juvenile individuals reared for 4 months in the experimental conditions. For each panel, the designations ‘temp’ and ‘pCO2’ indicate significant temperature or pCO2 (2-way ANOVA). Open and filled bars represent measurements at current-day and high pCO2 levels respectively. Different letters above the bars indicate significant differences (p < 0.05) in Tukey's HSD post hoc test on the 2-way ANOVA analysis.
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pone.0151920.g003: Concholepas concholepas.Effect of two different levels of pCO2 and temperature on the (mean ± SE) (a) self-righting time and (b) force required to dislodge small juvenile individuals reared for 4 months in the experimental conditions. For each panel, the designations ‘temp’ and ‘pCO2’ indicate significant temperature or pCO2 (2-way ANOVA). Open and filled bars represent measurements at current-day and high pCO2 levels respectively. Different letters above the bars indicate significant differences (p < 0.05) in Tukey's HSD post hoc test on the 2-way ANOVA analysis.

Mentions: Self-righting was observed in individuals exposed to all of the experimental treatments (Table 4). There was no interaction between temperature and pCO2 for self-righting nor for temperature alone (Table 4). At elevated pCO2 levels self-righting times were significantly faster in individuals reared at high pCO2 levels at both 15°C (Tukey's HSD test; p < 0.05) and 19°C (Tukey's HSD test; p < 0.05; Fig 3a). Temperature alone and temperature and pCO2 in combination had no effect on self-righting times (Table 4).


Ocean Acidification and Increased Temperature Have Both Positive and Negative Effects on Early Ontogenetic Traits of a Rocky Shore Keystone Predator Species.

Manríquez PH, Jara ME, Seguel ME, Torres R, Alarcon E, Lee MR - PLoS ONE (2016)

Concholepas concholepas.Effect of two different levels of pCO2 and temperature on the (mean ± SE) (a) self-righting time and (b) force required to dislodge small juvenile individuals reared for 4 months in the experimental conditions. For each panel, the designations ‘temp’ and ‘pCO2’ indicate significant temperature or pCO2 (2-way ANOVA). Open and filled bars represent measurements at current-day and high pCO2 levels respectively. Different letters above the bars indicate significant differences (p < 0.05) in Tukey's HSD post hoc test on the 2-way ANOVA analysis.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4814070&req=5

pone.0151920.g003: Concholepas concholepas.Effect of two different levels of pCO2 and temperature on the (mean ± SE) (a) self-righting time and (b) force required to dislodge small juvenile individuals reared for 4 months in the experimental conditions. For each panel, the designations ‘temp’ and ‘pCO2’ indicate significant temperature or pCO2 (2-way ANOVA). Open and filled bars represent measurements at current-day and high pCO2 levels respectively. Different letters above the bars indicate significant differences (p < 0.05) in Tukey's HSD post hoc test on the 2-way ANOVA analysis.
Mentions: Self-righting was observed in individuals exposed to all of the experimental treatments (Table 4). There was no interaction between temperature and pCO2 for self-righting nor for temperature alone (Table 4). At elevated pCO2 levels self-righting times were significantly faster in individuals reared at high pCO2 levels at both 15°C (Tukey's HSD test; p < 0.05) and 19°C (Tukey's HSD test; p < 0.05; Fig 3a). Temperature alone and temperature and pCO2 in combination had no effect on self-righting times (Table 4).

Bottom Line: High tenacity and fast self-righting would reduce predation risk in nature and might compensate for the negative effects of high pCO2 levels on other important defensive traits such as shell size and escape behaviour.We conclude that climate change might produce in C. concholepas positive and negative effects in physiology and behaviour.Moreover, we conclude that positive behavioural responses may assist in the adaptation to negative physiological impacts, and that this may also be the case for other benthic organisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratorio de Ecología y Conducta de la Ontogenia Temprana (LECOT), Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas (CEAZA), Coquimbo, Chile.

ABSTRACT
The combined effect of ocean acidification and warming is expected to have significant effects on several traits of marine organisms. The gastropod Concholepas concholepas is a rocky shore keystone predator characteristic of the south-eastern Pacific coast of South America and an important natural resource exploited by small-scale artisanal fishermen along the coast of Chile and Peru. In this study, we used small juveniles of C. concholepas collected from the rocky intertidal habitats of southern Chile (39 °S) to evaluate under laboratory conditions the potential consequences of projected near-future levels of ocean acidification and warming for important early ontogenetic traits. The individuals were exposed long-term (5.8 months) to contrasting pCO2 (ca. 500 and 1400 μatm) and temperature (15 and 19 °C) levels. After this period we compared body growth traits, dislodgement resistance, predator-escape response, self-righting and metabolic rates. With respect to these traits there was no evidence of a synergistic interaction between pCO2 and temperature. Shell growth was negatively affected by high pCO2 levels only at 15 °C. High pCO2 levels also had a negative effect on the predator-escape response. Conversely, dislodgement resistance and self-righting were positively affected by high pCO2 levels at both temperatures. High tenacity and fast self-righting would reduce predation risk in nature and might compensate for the negative effects of high pCO2 levels on other important defensive traits such as shell size and escape behaviour. We conclude that climate change might produce in C. concholepas positive and negative effects in physiology and behaviour. In fact, some of the behavioural responses might be a consequence of physiological effects, such as changes in chemosensory capacity (e.g. predator-escape response) or secretion of adhesive mucous (e.g. dislodgement resistance). Moreover, we conclude that positive behavioural responses may assist in the adaptation to negative physiological impacts, and that this may also be the case for other benthic organisms.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus