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Ocean Acidification and Increased Temperature Have Both Positive and Negative Effects on Early Ontogenetic Traits of a Rocky Shore Keystone Predator Species.

Manríquez PH, Jara ME, Seguel ME, Torres R, Alarcon E, Lee MR - PLoS ONE (2016)

Bottom Line: High tenacity and fast self-righting would reduce predation risk in nature and might compensate for the negative effects of high pCO2 levels on other important defensive traits such as shell size and escape behaviour.We conclude that climate change might produce in C. concholepas positive and negative effects in physiology and behaviour.Moreover, we conclude that positive behavioural responses may assist in the adaptation to negative physiological impacts, and that this may also be the case for other benthic organisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratorio de Ecología y Conducta de la Ontogenia Temprana (LECOT), Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas (CEAZA), Coquimbo, Chile.

ABSTRACT
The combined effect of ocean acidification and warming is expected to have significant effects on several traits of marine organisms. The gastropod Concholepas concholepas is a rocky shore keystone predator characteristic of the south-eastern Pacific coast of South America and an important natural resource exploited by small-scale artisanal fishermen along the coast of Chile and Peru. In this study, we used small juveniles of C. concholepas collected from the rocky intertidal habitats of southern Chile (39 °S) to evaluate under laboratory conditions the potential consequences of projected near-future levels of ocean acidification and warming for important early ontogenetic traits. The individuals were exposed long-term (5.8 months) to contrasting pCO2 (ca. 500 and 1400 μatm) and temperature (15 and 19 °C) levels. After this period we compared body growth traits, dislodgement resistance, predator-escape response, self-righting and metabolic rates. With respect to these traits there was no evidence of a synergistic interaction between pCO2 and temperature. Shell growth was negatively affected by high pCO2 levels only at 15 °C. High pCO2 levels also had a negative effect on the predator-escape response. Conversely, dislodgement resistance and self-righting were positively affected by high pCO2 levels at both temperatures. High tenacity and fast self-righting would reduce predation risk in nature and might compensate for the negative effects of high pCO2 levels on other important defensive traits such as shell size and escape behaviour. We conclude that climate change might produce in C. concholepas positive and negative effects in physiology and behaviour. In fact, some of the behavioural responses might be a consequence of physiological effects, such as changes in chemosensory capacity (e.g. predator-escape response) or secretion of adhesive mucous (e.g. dislodgement resistance). Moreover, we conclude that positive behavioural responses may assist in the adaptation to negative physiological impacts, and that this may also be the case for other benthic organisms.

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Concholepas concholepas.Effect of two different levels of pCO2 and temperature on the (mean ± SE) (a) percentage of total body size increase; (b) percentage of total body wet weight increase; (c) net calcification rate and (d) shell thickness index of small juvenile individuals reared for 5.8 months in the experimental conditions. For each panel, the designations ‘pCO2’ indicate significant pCO2 (two-way ANOVA). Open and filled bars represent measurements at current-day and high pCO2 levels respectively. Different letters above the bars indicate significant differences (p < 0.05) in Tukey's HSD post hoc test on the 2-way ANOVA analysis. The * above the open bars represent significant differences (p < 0.05) on the 1-way ANOVA analysis comparing the acclimatisation and the treatment phase at 15°C.
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pone.0151920.g002: Concholepas concholepas.Effect of two different levels of pCO2 and temperature on the (mean ± SE) (a) percentage of total body size increase; (b) percentage of total body wet weight increase; (c) net calcification rate and (d) shell thickness index of small juvenile individuals reared for 5.8 months in the experimental conditions. For each panel, the designations ‘pCO2’ indicate significant pCO2 (two-way ANOVA). Open and filled bars represent measurements at current-day and high pCO2 levels respectively. Different letters above the bars indicate significant differences (p < 0.05) in Tukey's HSD post hoc test on the 2-way ANOVA analysis. The * above the open bars represent significant differences (p < 0.05) on the 1-way ANOVA analysis comparing the acclimatisation and the treatment phase at 15°C.

Mentions: Average shell growth estimated from changes in body size was significantly higher during the acclimatisation phase than during the treatment phase at current-day pCO2 levels and at both temperatures (1-way ANOVA, F2,27 = 17.518, p < 0.05; Fig 2a). During the treatment phase pCO2 level did have a significant effect on shell growth (2-way ANOVA p < 0.05; Fig 2a; Table 2). At 15°C, elevated pCO2 levels caused significantly reduced growth as measured by changes in body size (Tukey's HSD test p < 0.05; Fig 2a). However, no significant differences were found at 19°C (Tukey's HSD test; p > 0.05; Fig 2a; Table 2). During the treatment phase there was no significant effect on shell growth due to temperature and pCO2 levels in combination, nor by temperature alone (Fig 2a; Table 2).


Ocean Acidification and Increased Temperature Have Both Positive and Negative Effects on Early Ontogenetic Traits of a Rocky Shore Keystone Predator Species.

Manríquez PH, Jara ME, Seguel ME, Torres R, Alarcon E, Lee MR - PLoS ONE (2016)

Concholepas concholepas.Effect of two different levels of pCO2 and temperature on the (mean ± SE) (a) percentage of total body size increase; (b) percentage of total body wet weight increase; (c) net calcification rate and (d) shell thickness index of small juvenile individuals reared for 5.8 months in the experimental conditions. For each panel, the designations ‘pCO2’ indicate significant pCO2 (two-way ANOVA). Open and filled bars represent measurements at current-day and high pCO2 levels respectively. Different letters above the bars indicate significant differences (p < 0.05) in Tukey's HSD post hoc test on the 2-way ANOVA analysis. The * above the open bars represent significant differences (p < 0.05) on the 1-way ANOVA analysis comparing the acclimatisation and the treatment phase at 15°C.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4814070&req=5

pone.0151920.g002: Concholepas concholepas.Effect of two different levels of pCO2 and temperature on the (mean ± SE) (a) percentage of total body size increase; (b) percentage of total body wet weight increase; (c) net calcification rate and (d) shell thickness index of small juvenile individuals reared for 5.8 months in the experimental conditions. For each panel, the designations ‘pCO2’ indicate significant pCO2 (two-way ANOVA). Open and filled bars represent measurements at current-day and high pCO2 levels respectively. Different letters above the bars indicate significant differences (p < 0.05) in Tukey's HSD post hoc test on the 2-way ANOVA analysis. The * above the open bars represent significant differences (p < 0.05) on the 1-way ANOVA analysis comparing the acclimatisation and the treatment phase at 15°C.
Mentions: Average shell growth estimated from changes in body size was significantly higher during the acclimatisation phase than during the treatment phase at current-day pCO2 levels and at both temperatures (1-way ANOVA, F2,27 = 17.518, p < 0.05; Fig 2a). During the treatment phase pCO2 level did have a significant effect on shell growth (2-way ANOVA p < 0.05; Fig 2a; Table 2). At 15°C, elevated pCO2 levels caused significantly reduced growth as measured by changes in body size (Tukey's HSD test p < 0.05; Fig 2a). However, no significant differences were found at 19°C (Tukey's HSD test; p > 0.05; Fig 2a; Table 2). During the treatment phase there was no significant effect on shell growth due to temperature and pCO2 levels in combination, nor by temperature alone (Fig 2a; Table 2).

Bottom Line: High tenacity and fast self-righting would reduce predation risk in nature and might compensate for the negative effects of high pCO2 levels on other important defensive traits such as shell size and escape behaviour.We conclude that climate change might produce in C. concholepas positive and negative effects in physiology and behaviour.Moreover, we conclude that positive behavioural responses may assist in the adaptation to negative physiological impacts, and that this may also be the case for other benthic organisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratorio de Ecología y Conducta de la Ontogenia Temprana (LECOT), Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas (CEAZA), Coquimbo, Chile.

ABSTRACT
The combined effect of ocean acidification and warming is expected to have significant effects on several traits of marine organisms. The gastropod Concholepas concholepas is a rocky shore keystone predator characteristic of the south-eastern Pacific coast of South America and an important natural resource exploited by small-scale artisanal fishermen along the coast of Chile and Peru. In this study, we used small juveniles of C. concholepas collected from the rocky intertidal habitats of southern Chile (39 °S) to evaluate under laboratory conditions the potential consequences of projected near-future levels of ocean acidification and warming for important early ontogenetic traits. The individuals were exposed long-term (5.8 months) to contrasting pCO2 (ca. 500 and 1400 μatm) and temperature (15 and 19 °C) levels. After this period we compared body growth traits, dislodgement resistance, predator-escape response, self-righting and metabolic rates. With respect to these traits there was no evidence of a synergistic interaction between pCO2 and temperature. Shell growth was negatively affected by high pCO2 levels only at 15 °C. High pCO2 levels also had a negative effect on the predator-escape response. Conversely, dislodgement resistance and self-righting were positively affected by high pCO2 levels at both temperatures. High tenacity and fast self-righting would reduce predation risk in nature and might compensate for the negative effects of high pCO2 levels on other important defensive traits such as shell size and escape behaviour. We conclude that climate change might produce in C. concholepas positive and negative effects in physiology and behaviour. In fact, some of the behavioural responses might be a consequence of physiological effects, such as changes in chemosensory capacity (e.g. predator-escape response) or secretion of adhesive mucous (e.g. dislodgement resistance). Moreover, we conclude that positive behavioural responses may assist in the adaptation to negative physiological impacts, and that this may also be the case for other benthic organisms.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus