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Ocean Acidification and Increased Temperature Have Both Positive and Negative Effects on Early Ontogenetic Traits of a Rocky Shore Keystone Predator Species.

Manríquez PH, Jara ME, Seguel ME, Torres R, Alarcon E, Lee MR - PLoS ONE (2016)

Bottom Line: High tenacity and fast self-righting would reduce predation risk in nature and might compensate for the negative effects of high pCO2 levels on other important defensive traits such as shell size and escape behaviour.We conclude that climate change might produce in C. concholepas positive and negative effects in physiology and behaviour.Moreover, we conclude that positive behavioural responses may assist in the adaptation to negative physiological impacts, and that this may also be the case for other benthic organisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratorio de Ecología y Conducta de la Ontogenia Temprana (LECOT), Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas (CEAZA), Coquimbo, Chile.

ABSTRACT
The combined effect of ocean acidification and warming is expected to have significant effects on several traits of marine organisms. The gastropod Concholepas concholepas is a rocky shore keystone predator characteristic of the south-eastern Pacific coast of South America and an important natural resource exploited by small-scale artisanal fishermen along the coast of Chile and Peru. In this study, we used small juveniles of C. concholepas collected from the rocky intertidal habitats of southern Chile (39 °S) to evaluate under laboratory conditions the potential consequences of projected near-future levels of ocean acidification and warming for important early ontogenetic traits. The individuals were exposed long-term (5.8 months) to contrasting pCO2 (ca. 500 and 1400 μatm) and temperature (15 and 19 °C) levels. After this period we compared body growth traits, dislodgement resistance, predator-escape response, self-righting and metabolic rates. With respect to these traits there was no evidence of a synergistic interaction between pCO2 and temperature. Shell growth was negatively affected by high pCO2 levels only at 15 °C. High pCO2 levels also had a negative effect on the predator-escape response. Conversely, dislodgement resistance and self-righting were positively affected by high pCO2 levels at both temperatures. High tenacity and fast self-righting would reduce predation risk in nature and might compensate for the negative effects of high pCO2 levels on other important defensive traits such as shell size and escape behaviour. We conclude that climate change might produce in C. concholepas positive and negative effects in physiology and behaviour. In fact, some of the behavioural responses might be a consequence of physiological effects, such as changes in chemosensory capacity (e.g. predator-escape response) or secretion of adhesive mucous (e.g. dislodgement resistance). Moreover, we conclude that positive behavioural responses may assist in the adaptation to negative physiological impacts, and that this may also be the case for other benthic organisms.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic representations of the rearing bottles (a) and chamber used to measure dislodgement force (b-c).A: air stone, Al: plastic airline, Epl: external plastic lid; Icl: Internal conic lid; Pa: pivoting axis or fulcrum; Hpf: horizontal pivoting flap; Vpf: vertical pivotal flap; Wl: water level; Ei: experimental individual. In (c) the dashed contour depicts the position of the pivoting flap after the dislodgement force had been applied and the Ei was dislodged from the substratum. The black arrow depicts the point where the vertical force with the digital push-dynamometer was applied to the Hpf, and the grey arrow depicts the place where the resulting horizontal force of the Vpf was applied against the Ei.
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pone.0151920.g001: Schematic representations of the rearing bottles (a) and chamber used to measure dislodgement force (b-c).A: air stone, Al: plastic airline, Epl: external plastic lid; Icl: Internal conic lid; Pa: pivoting axis or fulcrum; Hpf: horizontal pivoting flap; Vpf: vertical pivotal flap; Wl: water level; Ei: experimental individual. In (c) the dashed contour depicts the position of the pivoting flap after the dislodgement force had been applied and the Ei was dislodged from the substratum. The black arrow depicts the point where the vertical force with the digital push-dynamometer was applied to the Hpf, and the grey arrow depicts the place where the resulting horizontal force of the Vpf was applied against the Ei.

Mentions: The C. concholepas individuals were subjected to two phases in the laboratory, first an acclimatization phase followed by a treatment phase. To allow the individuals to adjust to laboratory conditions, during the first rearing phase (acclimatisation phase) the individuals were reared in a 7.5 L aquarium semi-immersed in a water bath to maintain the temperature at 15 ± 0.5°C. During this acclimatisation phase (ca. 2.1 months) the individuals were maintained with running seawater and fed ad libitum with fresh individuals of the mussel Semimytilus algosus. During the treatment phase (5.8 months) the C. concholepas were maintained in individual rearing chambers. Each chamber (Fig 1) was constructed from a 1.5 L plastic drinks bottle. The top third of the bottle was cut away and then inverted and placed into the bottom two thirds creating a chamber with an inverted cone at the top, this inverted cone proved effective in preventing the test organism from escaping. A plastic lid was then placed over the top of the rearing chamber. This second lid was pierced by an air tube which then passed through the cone to a diffuser in the lower portion of the rearing chamber.


Ocean Acidification and Increased Temperature Have Both Positive and Negative Effects on Early Ontogenetic Traits of a Rocky Shore Keystone Predator Species.

Manríquez PH, Jara ME, Seguel ME, Torres R, Alarcon E, Lee MR - PLoS ONE (2016)

Schematic representations of the rearing bottles (a) and chamber used to measure dislodgement force (b-c).A: air stone, Al: plastic airline, Epl: external plastic lid; Icl: Internal conic lid; Pa: pivoting axis or fulcrum; Hpf: horizontal pivoting flap; Vpf: vertical pivotal flap; Wl: water level; Ei: experimental individual. In (c) the dashed contour depicts the position of the pivoting flap after the dislodgement force had been applied and the Ei was dislodged from the substratum. The black arrow depicts the point where the vertical force with the digital push-dynamometer was applied to the Hpf, and the grey arrow depicts the place where the resulting horizontal force of the Vpf was applied against the Ei.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4814070&req=5

pone.0151920.g001: Schematic representations of the rearing bottles (a) and chamber used to measure dislodgement force (b-c).A: air stone, Al: plastic airline, Epl: external plastic lid; Icl: Internal conic lid; Pa: pivoting axis or fulcrum; Hpf: horizontal pivoting flap; Vpf: vertical pivotal flap; Wl: water level; Ei: experimental individual. In (c) the dashed contour depicts the position of the pivoting flap after the dislodgement force had been applied and the Ei was dislodged from the substratum. The black arrow depicts the point where the vertical force with the digital push-dynamometer was applied to the Hpf, and the grey arrow depicts the place where the resulting horizontal force of the Vpf was applied against the Ei.
Mentions: The C. concholepas individuals were subjected to two phases in the laboratory, first an acclimatization phase followed by a treatment phase. To allow the individuals to adjust to laboratory conditions, during the first rearing phase (acclimatisation phase) the individuals were reared in a 7.5 L aquarium semi-immersed in a water bath to maintain the temperature at 15 ± 0.5°C. During this acclimatisation phase (ca. 2.1 months) the individuals were maintained with running seawater and fed ad libitum with fresh individuals of the mussel Semimytilus algosus. During the treatment phase (5.8 months) the C. concholepas were maintained in individual rearing chambers. Each chamber (Fig 1) was constructed from a 1.5 L plastic drinks bottle. The top third of the bottle was cut away and then inverted and placed into the bottom two thirds creating a chamber with an inverted cone at the top, this inverted cone proved effective in preventing the test organism from escaping. A plastic lid was then placed over the top of the rearing chamber. This second lid was pierced by an air tube which then passed through the cone to a diffuser in the lower portion of the rearing chamber.

Bottom Line: High tenacity and fast self-righting would reduce predation risk in nature and might compensate for the negative effects of high pCO2 levels on other important defensive traits such as shell size and escape behaviour.We conclude that climate change might produce in C. concholepas positive and negative effects in physiology and behaviour.Moreover, we conclude that positive behavioural responses may assist in the adaptation to negative physiological impacts, and that this may also be the case for other benthic organisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratorio de Ecología y Conducta de la Ontogenia Temprana (LECOT), Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas (CEAZA), Coquimbo, Chile.

ABSTRACT
The combined effect of ocean acidification and warming is expected to have significant effects on several traits of marine organisms. The gastropod Concholepas concholepas is a rocky shore keystone predator characteristic of the south-eastern Pacific coast of South America and an important natural resource exploited by small-scale artisanal fishermen along the coast of Chile and Peru. In this study, we used small juveniles of C. concholepas collected from the rocky intertidal habitats of southern Chile (39 °S) to evaluate under laboratory conditions the potential consequences of projected near-future levels of ocean acidification and warming for important early ontogenetic traits. The individuals were exposed long-term (5.8 months) to contrasting pCO2 (ca. 500 and 1400 μatm) and temperature (15 and 19 °C) levels. After this period we compared body growth traits, dislodgement resistance, predator-escape response, self-righting and metabolic rates. With respect to these traits there was no evidence of a synergistic interaction between pCO2 and temperature. Shell growth was negatively affected by high pCO2 levels only at 15 °C. High pCO2 levels also had a negative effect on the predator-escape response. Conversely, dislodgement resistance and self-righting were positively affected by high pCO2 levels at both temperatures. High tenacity and fast self-righting would reduce predation risk in nature and might compensate for the negative effects of high pCO2 levels on other important defensive traits such as shell size and escape behaviour. We conclude that climate change might produce in C. concholepas positive and negative effects in physiology and behaviour. In fact, some of the behavioural responses might be a consequence of physiological effects, such as changes in chemosensory capacity (e.g. predator-escape response) or secretion of adhesive mucous (e.g. dislodgement resistance). Moreover, we conclude that positive behavioural responses may assist in the adaptation to negative physiological impacts, and that this may also be the case for other benthic organisms.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus