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Parenting Practices at 24 to 47 Months and IQ at Age 8: Effect-Measure Modification by Infant Temperament.

Chong SY, Chittleborough CR, Gregory T, Mittinty MN, Lynch JW, Smithers LG - PLoS ONE (2016)

Bottom Line: Temperament at 6 months was measured using the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire and classified into 'easy' and 'difficult'.Linear regression adjusted for multiple confounders and temperament showed lower parental warmth was weakly associated with lower IQ score [β = -0.52 (95% CI 1.26, 0.21)], and higher parental control was associated with lower IQ score [β = -2.21 (-2.95, -1.48)].For both parental warmth and control, there was some evidence of negative effect-measure modification by temperament on the risk-difference scale and the risk-ratio scale.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Population Health, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Cognitive development might be influenced by parenting practices and child temperament. We examined whether the associations between parental warmth, control and intelligence quotient (IQ) may be heightened among children in difficult temperament. Participants were from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 7,044). Temperament at 6 months was measured using the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire and classified into 'easy' and 'difficult'. Parental warmth and control was measured at 24 to 47 months and both were classified into 2 groups using latent class analyses. IQ was measured at 8 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and dichotomized (<85 and ≥85) for analyzing effect-measure modification by temperament. Linear regression adjusted for multiple confounders and temperament showed lower parental warmth was weakly associated with lower IQ score [β = -0.52 (95% CI 1.26, 0.21)], and higher parental control was associated with lower IQ score [β = -2.21 (-2.95, -1.48)]. Stratification by temperament showed no increased risk of having low IQ in temperamentally difficult children [risk ratio (RR) = 0.97 95% CI 0.65, 1.45)] but an increased risk among temperamentally easy children (RR = 1.12 95% CI 0.95, 1.32) when parental warmth was low. There was also no increased risk of having low IQ in temperamentally difficult children (RR = 1.02 95% CI 0.69, 1.53) but there was an increased risk among temperamentally easy children (RR = 1.30 95% CI 1.11, 1.53) when parental control was high. For both parental warmth and control, there was some evidence of negative effect-measure modification by temperament on the risk-difference scale and the risk-ratio scale. It may be more appropriate to provide parenting interventions as a universal program rather than targeting children with difficult temperament.

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Mentions: The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) is a population-based prospective study investigating the influence of genetic and environmental characteristics on health and development in parents and children. A total of 14,541 pregnant women who resided in the Southwest of England with expected delivery date between 1st April 1991 and 31st December 1992 were recruited, and this includes 72% of the eligible mothers [33]. The ALSPAC sample is broadly representative of the population living in Avon and the whole of Britain at the time although ethnic minorities and unmarried couples were slightly underrepresented [33]. Follow up assessments have been administered frequently through questionnaires and clinical assessments. The length of follow-up and the breadth of data collection provide valuable data that can be used as confounders. The ALSPAC sample consists of 13,988 infants who were alive at one year (Fig 1). The study website contains details of all the data that is available through a fully searchable data dictionary (http://www.bris.ac.uk/alspac/researchers/data-access/data-dictionary/).


Parenting Practices at 24 to 47 Months and IQ at Age 8: Effect-Measure Modification by Infant Temperament.

Chong SY, Chittleborough CR, Gregory T, Mittinty MN, Lynch JW, Smithers LG - PLoS ONE (2016)

Eligible cohort and numbers included.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4814065&req=5

pone.0152452.g001: Eligible cohort and numbers included.
Mentions: The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) is a population-based prospective study investigating the influence of genetic and environmental characteristics on health and development in parents and children. A total of 14,541 pregnant women who resided in the Southwest of England with expected delivery date between 1st April 1991 and 31st December 1992 were recruited, and this includes 72% of the eligible mothers [33]. The ALSPAC sample is broadly representative of the population living in Avon and the whole of Britain at the time although ethnic minorities and unmarried couples were slightly underrepresented [33]. Follow up assessments have been administered frequently through questionnaires and clinical assessments. The length of follow-up and the breadth of data collection provide valuable data that can be used as confounders. The ALSPAC sample consists of 13,988 infants who were alive at one year (Fig 1). The study website contains details of all the data that is available through a fully searchable data dictionary (http://www.bris.ac.uk/alspac/researchers/data-access/data-dictionary/).

Bottom Line: Temperament at 6 months was measured using the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire and classified into 'easy' and 'difficult'.Linear regression adjusted for multiple confounders and temperament showed lower parental warmth was weakly associated with lower IQ score [β = -0.52 (95% CI 1.26, 0.21)], and higher parental control was associated with lower IQ score [β = -2.21 (-2.95, -1.48)].For both parental warmth and control, there was some evidence of negative effect-measure modification by temperament on the risk-difference scale and the risk-ratio scale.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Population Health, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Cognitive development might be influenced by parenting practices and child temperament. We examined whether the associations between parental warmth, control and intelligence quotient (IQ) may be heightened among children in difficult temperament. Participants were from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 7,044). Temperament at 6 months was measured using the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire and classified into 'easy' and 'difficult'. Parental warmth and control was measured at 24 to 47 months and both were classified into 2 groups using latent class analyses. IQ was measured at 8 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and dichotomized (<85 and ≥85) for analyzing effect-measure modification by temperament. Linear regression adjusted for multiple confounders and temperament showed lower parental warmth was weakly associated with lower IQ score [β = -0.52 (95% CI 1.26, 0.21)], and higher parental control was associated with lower IQ score [β = -2.21 (-2.95, -1.48)]. Stratification by temperament showed no increased risk of having low IQ in temperamentally difficult children [risk ratio (RR) = 0.97 95% CI 0.65, 1.45)] but an increased risk among temperamentally easy children (RR = 1.12 95% CI 0.95, 1.32) when parental warmth was low. There was also no increased risk of having low IQ in temperamentally difficult children (RR = 1.02 95% CI 0.69, 1.53) but there was an increased risk among temperamentally easy children (RR = 1.30 95% CI 1.11, 1.53) when parental control was high. For both parental warmth and control, there was some evidence of negative effect-measure modification by temperament on the risk-difference scale and the risk-ratio scale. It may be more appropriate to provide parenting interventions as a universal program rather than targeting children with difficult temperament.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus