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Electroacupuncture Produces the Sustained Motor Improvement in 6-Hydroxydopamine-Lesioned Mice.

Yu Y, Wang K, Deng J, Sun M, Jia J, Wang X - PLoS ONE (2016)

Bottom Line: Chronic EA treatment (30 min a day, 6 days a week for 2 or 4 weeks) significantly attenuated motor deficiency and reduced dopamine neuron degeneration.Remarkably, EA showed a long-lasting effect after the cessation of EA stimulation.Here we demonstrated that the therapeutic effect of EA outlasted the duration of EA application.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departments of Neurobiology and Physiology, Key Laboratory for Neurodegenerative Disorders of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Key Laboratory for Parkinson's Disease, Capital Medical University, Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Beijing, 100069, China.

ABSTRACT
Clinical and research evidence has shown that electroacupuncture (EA) promotes recovery of motor function in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the "efficacy span" of EA treatment, especially the long-term effect of EA that is thought to last after the cessation of EA treatment, has not been investigated. The present study thus investigated and compared the effect of EA during and after chronic EA application on motor activity and dopamine lesions in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned mouse model of PD. Chronic EA treatment (30 min a day, 6 days a week for 2 or 4 weeks) significantly attenuated motor deficiency and reduced dopamine neuron degeneration. Remarkably, EA showed a long-lasting effect after the cessation of EA stimulation. At 2 and 4 weeks after the termination of EA, EA continued to improve motor function in 6-OHDA-lesioned mice. Consistent with sustained behavioral effects, EA induced an enduring increase in the dopamine turnover ratio in the striatum 2 weeks after the cessation of EA treatment. Here we demonstrated that the therapeutic effect of EA outlasted the duration of EA application. During a relatively long period of time after the completion of EA treatment, EA is able to continue to improve motor function and enhance dopamine availability in 6-OHDA-lesioned PD mice.

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Two weeks’ EA stimulation exerted the behavioral improvements and neuroprotective effects on 6-OHDA-lesioned mice.(A) Rotarod test. The time to fall off the rotarod treadmill was recorded as the latency. (B) Cylinder test. The percentage of contralateral paw contacts relative to the lesioned hemisphere was calculated by contralateral touches / (contralateral touches + ipsilateral touches + simultaneous touches). Locomotor activity was assessed by horizontal (C) and vertical (D) movement distance. (E) Immunohistochemistrical staining for TH positive dopaminergic neurons in the SNpc (scale bar: 100 μm) and fibers in the striatum (scale bar: 50 μm). (F) The percentage of TH positive dopaminergic neurons from the SNpc in the lesioned side relative to that in the unlesioned side. (G) Optical density was used to evaluate relative TH expression from lesioned striatum compared with unlesioned one. The values were expressed as means ± SEM. n = 10–12 per group for the behavior tests; n = 5 per group for the immunohistochemical experiments. * P <0.05; ** P <0.01; *** P <0.001 vs. Sham group. # P <0.05; ## P <0.01 vs. 0 Hz group.
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pone.0149111.g002: Two weeks’ EA stimulation exerted the behavioral improvements and neuroprotective effects on 6-OHDA-lesioned mice.(A) Rotarod test. The time to fall off the rotarod treadmill was recorded as the latency. (B) Cylinder test. The percentage of contralateral paw contacts relative to the lesioned hemisphere was calculated by contralateral touches / (contralateral touches + ipsilateral touches + simultaneous touches). Locomotor activity was assessed by horizontal (C) and vertical (D) movement distance. (E) Immunohistochemistrical staining for TH positive dopaminergic neurons in the SNpc (scale bar: 100 μm) and fibers in the striatum (scale bar: 50 μm). (F) The percentage of TH positive dopaminergic neurons from the SNpc in the lesioned side relative to that in the unlesioned side. (G) Optical density was used to evaluate relative TH expression from lesioned striatum compared with unlesioned one. The values were expressed as means ± SEM. n = 10–12 per group for the behavior tests; n = 5 per group for the immunohistochemical experiments. * P <0.05; ** P <0.01; *** P <0.001 vs. Sham group. # P <0.05; ## P <0.01 vs. 0 Hz group.

Mentions: As illustrated in Figs 2 and 3, in 6-OHDA-lesioned mice, effects of EA on motor activities and TH immunostaining were investigated at the therapeutic stage, i.e., 2 and 4 weeks after the start of EA stimulation. We found that 100 Hz EA significantly increased the latency in the rotarod test at both 2 (Fig 2A) and 4 (Fig 3A) weeks, while 0 Hz EA did not, but 100 Hz EA also increased the percentage of contralateral forelimb placement at 2 weeks (39.5 ± 3.8% vs. 21.3 ± 3.7%, P < 0.05, Fig 2B) and 4 (43.7 ± 3.7% vs. 25.8 ± 5.4%, P < 0.05, Fig 3B) weeks after the start of EA stimulation. Similar results were observed in the locomotor behavioral test. A significant increase in the total movement distance in both horizontal and vertical directions was seen in mice treated with 100 Hz EA as compared to mice treated with 0 Hz EA at both 2 (Fig 2C and 2D) and 4 (Fig 3C and 3D) weeks.


Electroacupuncture Produces the Sustained Motor Improvement in 6-Hydroxydopamine-Lesioned Mice.

Yu Y, Wang K, Deng J, Sun M, Jia J, Wang X - PLoS ONE (2016)

Two weeks’ EA stimulation exerted the behavioral improvements and neuroprotective effects on 6-OHDA-lesioned mice.(A) Rotarod test. The time to fall off the rotarod treadmill was recorded as the latency. (B) Cylinder test. The percentage of contralateral paw contacts relative to the lesioned hemisphere was calculated by contralateral touches / (contralateral touches + ipsilateral touches + simultaneous touches). Locomotor activity was assessed by horizontal (C) and vertical (D) movement distance. (E) Immunohistochemistrical staining for TH positive dopaminergic neurons in the SNpc (scale bar: 100 μm) and fibers in the striatum (scale bar: 50 μm). (F) The percentage of TH positive dopaminergic neurons from the SNpc in the lesioned side relative to that in the unlesioned side. (G) Optical density was used to evaluate relative TH expression from lesioned striatum compared with unlesioned one. The values were expressed as means ± SEM. n = 10–12 per group for the behavior tests; n = 5 per group for the immunohistochemical experiments. * P <0.05; ** P <0.01; *** P <0.001 vs. Sham group. # P <0.05; ## P <0.01 vs. 0 Hz group.
© Copyright Policy
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pone.0149111.g002: Two weeks’ EA stimulation exerted the behavioral improvements and neuroprotective effects on 6-OHDA-lesioned mice.(A) Rotarod test. The time to fall off the rotarod treadmill was recorded as the latency. (B) Cylinder test. The percentage of contralateral paw contacts relative to the lesioned hemisphere was calculated by contralateral touches / (contralateral touches + ipsilateral touches + simultaneous touches). Locomotor activity was assessed by horizontal (C) and vertical (D) movement distance. (E) Immunohistochemistrical staining for TH positive dopaminergic neurons in the SNpc (scale bar: 100 μm) and fibers in the striatum (scale bar: 50 μm). (F) The percentage of TH positive dopaminergic neurons from the SNpc in the lesioned side relative to that in the unlesioned side. (G) Optical density was used to evaluate relative TH expression from lesioned striatum compared with unlesioned one. The values were expressed as means ± SEM. n = 10–12 per group for the behavior tests; n = 5 per group for the immunohistochemical experiments. * P <0.05; ** P <0.01; *** P <0.001 vs. Sham group. # P <0.05; ## P <0.01 vs. 0 Hz group.
Mentions: As illustrated in Figs 2 and 3, in 6-OHDA-lesioned mice, effects of EA on motor activities and TH immunostaining were investigated at the therapeutic stage, i.e., 2 and 4 weeks after the start of EA stimulation. We found that 100 Hz EA significantly increased the latency in the rotarod test at both 2 (Fig 2A) and 4 (Fig 3A) weeks, while 0 Hz EA did not, but 100 Hz EA also increased the percentage of contralateral forelimb placement at 2 weeks (39.5 ± 3.8% vs. 21.3 ± 3.7%, P < 0.05, Fig 2B) and 4 (43.7 ± 3.7% vs. 25.8 ± 5.4%, P < 0.05, Fig 3B) weeks after the start of EA stimulation. Similar results were observed in the locomotor behavioral test. A significant increase in the total movement distance in both horizontal and vertical directions was seen in mice treated with 100 Hz EA as compared to mice treated with 0 Hz EA at both 2 (Fig 2C and 2D) and 4 (Fig 3C and 3D) weeks.

Bottom Line: Chronic EA treatment (30 min a day, 6 days a week for 2 or 4 weeks) significantly attenuated motor deficiency and reduced dopamine neuron degeneration.Remarkably, EA showed a long-lasting effect after the cessation of EA stimulation.Here we demonstrated that the therapeutic effect of EA outlasted the duration of EA application.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departments of Neurobiology and Physiology, Key Laboratory for Neurodegenerative Disorders of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Key Laboratory for Parkinson's Disease, Capital Medical University, Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Beijing, 100069, China.

ABSTRACT
Clinical and research evidence has shown that electroacupuncture (EA) promotes recovery of motor function in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the "efficacy span" of EA treatment, especially the long-term effect of EA that is thought to last after the cessation of EA treatment, has not been investigated. The present study thus investigated and compared the effect of EA during and after chronic EA application on motor activity and dopamine lesions in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned mouse model of PD. Chronic EA treatment (30 min a day, 6 days a week for 2 or 4 weeks) significantly attenuated motor deficiency and reduced dopamine neuron degeneration. Remarkably, EA showed a long-lasting effect after the cessation of EA stimulation. At 2 and 4 weeks after the termination of EA, EA continued to improve motor function in 6-OHDA-lesioned mice. Consistent with sustained behavioral effects, EA induced an enduring increase in the dopamine turnover ratio in the striatum 2 weeks after the cessation of EA treatment. Here we demonstrated that the therapeutic effect of EA outlasted the duration of EA application. During a relatively long period of time after the completion of EA treatment, EA is able to continue to improve motor function and enhance dopamine availability in 6-OHDA-lesioned PD mice.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus