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Evolution: How the zebrafish got its stripes.

McGowan KA, Barsh GS - Elife (2016)

Bottom Line: Live-cell imaging and genetic tools reveal a new way in which pigment cells communicate in zebrafish.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology, Huntsville, United States.

ABSTRACT
Live-cell imaging and genetic tools reveal a new way in which pigment cells communicate in zebrafish.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Stripe formation in zebrafish and zebra.Dense iridophores (white) cluster in the skin of zebrafish larvae (top left). In juvenile zebrafish, the different pigment cells begin to form stripes, during which immature xanthophores (yellow) extend airinemes to immature melanophores (gray). In adult zebrafish, mature xanthophores (orange) and iridophores form the pale interstripe regions, while mature melanophores (black) form the dark stripe regions. If airinemes are absent, some of the melanophores remain in the interstripe regions (bottom left, Eom et al., 2015). In zebras, epidermal cells (gray) and melanocytes (black) are uniformly distributed, and assignment of stripe identity may depend on periodic changes in the concentration of a Turing-like molecule outside the cells (dotted line) as the skin develops in the fetus. In adult zebra skin, work in horses and other equine animals (Imsland et al., 2015) suggests that hair follicle melanocytes are lost from white stripes.
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fig1: Stripe formation in zebrafish and zebra.Dense iridophores (white) cluster in the skin of zebrafish larvae (top left). In juvenile zebrafish, the different pigment cells begin to form stripes, during which immature xanthophores (yellow) extend airinemes to immature melanophores (gray). In adult zebrafish, mature xanthophores (orange) and iridophores form the pale interstripe regions, while mature melanophores (black) form the dark stripe regions. If airinemes are absent, some of the melanophores remain in the interstripe regions (bottom left, Eom et al., 2015). In zebras, epidermal cells (gray) and melanocytes (black) are uniformly distributed, and assignment of stripe identity may depend on periodic changes in the concentration of a Turing-like molecule outside the cells (dotted line) as the skin develops in the fetus. In adult zebra skin, work in horses and other equine animals (Imsland et al., 2015) suggests that hair follicle melanocytes are lost from white stripes.

Mentions: A key aspect of pattern development in zebrafish is that the cells that will become the melanophores and xanthophores – which are initially disorganized in the skin – move in a carefully directed manner to form the adult stripes. Eom et al. realized that the majority of airinemes were produced by immature xanthophores, which then contacted immature melanophores located in between stripes. By using a genetic trick to prevent the production of airinemes, Eom et al. demonstrated that these structures play critical roles in the formation of clearly defined stripes. When the airnemes are missing, the immature melanophores persist in the regions between the stripes, and the edges of the stripes are ragged and ill-defined (Figure 1). A second genetic trick – manipulating a cell communication system called Notch signaling in melanophores – led the researchers to suggest that the interaction between xanthophores and melanophores involves a Notch signaling system.Figure 1.Stripe formation in zebrafish and zebra.


Evolution: How the zebrafish got its stripes.

McGowan KA, Barsh GS - Elife (2016)

Stripe formation in zebrafish and zebra.Dense iridophores (white) cluster in the skin of zebrafish larvae (top left). In juvenile zebrafish, the different pigment cells begin to form stripes, during which immature xanthophores (yellow) extend airinemes to immature melanophores (gray). In adult zebrafish, mature xanthophores (orange) and iridophores form the pale interstripe regions, while mature melanophores (black) form the dark stripe regions. If airinemes are absent, some of the melanophores remain in the interstripe regions (bottom left, Eom et al., 2015). In zebras, epidermal cells (gray) and melanocytes (black) are uniformly distributed, and assignment of stripe identity may depend on periodic changes in the concentration of a Turing-like molecule outside the cells (dotted line) as the skin develops in the fetus. In adult zebra skin, work in horses and other equine animals (Imsland et al., 2015) suggests that hair follicle melanocytes are lost from white stripes.
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fig1: Stripe formation in zebrafish and zebra.Dense iridophores (white) cluster in the skin of zebrafish larvae (top left). In juvenile zebrafish, the different pigment cells begin to form stripes, during which immature xanthophores (yellow) extend airinemes to immature melanophores (gray). In adult zebrafish, mature xanthophores (orange) and iridophores form the pale interstripe regions, while mature melanophores (black) form the dark stripe regions. If airinemes are absent, some of the melanophores remain in the interstripe regions (bottom left, Eom et al., 2015). In zebras, epidermal cells (gray) and melanocytes (black) are uniformly distributed, and assignment of stripe identity may depend on periodic changes in the concentration of a Turing-like molecule outside the cells (dotted line) as the skin develops in the fetus. In adult zebra skin, work in horses and other equine animals (Imsland et al., 2015) suggests that hair follicle melanocytes are lost from white stripes.
Mentions: A key aspect of pattern development in zebrafish is that the cells that will become the melanophores and xanthophores – which are initially disorganized in the skin – move in a carefully directed manner to form the adult stripes. Eom et al. realized that the majority of airinemes were produced by immature xanthophores, which then contacted immature melanophores located in between stripes. By using a genetic trick to prevent the production of airinemes, Eom et al. demonstrated that these structures play critical roles in the formation of clearly defined stripes. When the airnemes are missing, the immature melanophores persist in the regions between the stripes, and the edges of the stripes are ragged and ill-defined (Figure 1). A second genetic trick – manipulating a cell communication system called Notch signaling in melanophores – led the researchers to suggest that the interaction between xanthophores and melanophores involves a Notch signaling system.Figure 1.Stripe formation in zebrafish and zebra.

Bottom Line: Live-cell imaging and genetic tools reveal a new way in which pigment cells communicate in zebrafish.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology, Huntsville, United States.

ABSTRACT
Live-cell imaging and genetic tools reveal a new way in which pigment cells communicate in zebrafish.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus