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Bimanual Coordination Learning with Different Augmented Feedback Modalities and Information Types.

Chiou SC, Chang EC - PLoS ONE (2016)

Bottom Line: Previous studies have shown that bimanual coordination learning is more resistant to the removal of augmented feedback when acquired with auditory than with visual channel.The results showed diverse performance change after practice when the feedback was removed between Lissajous and the other two rhythmic groups, indicating that the guidance effect may be modulated by the type of information provided during practice.Moreover, significant performance improvement in the dual-task condition where the irregular rhythm counting task was applied as a secondary task also suggested that lower involvement of conscious control may result in better performance in bimanual coordination.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, National Central University, Taoyuan City, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT
Previous studies have shown that bimanual coordination learning is more resistant to the removal of augmented feedback when acquired with auditory than with visual channel. However, it is unclear whether this differential "guidance effect" between feedback modalities is due to enhanced sensorimotor integration via the non-dominant auditory channel or strengthened linkage to kinesthetic information under rhythmic input. The current study aimed to examine how modalities (visual vs. auditory) and information types (continuous visuospatial vs. discrete rhythmic) of concurrent augmented feedback influence bimanual coordination learning. Participants either learned a 90°-out-of-phase pattern for three consecutive days with Lissajous feedback indicating the integrated position of both arms, or with visual or auditory rhythmic feedback reflecting the relative timing of the movement. The results showed diverse performance change after practice when the feedback was removed between Lissajous and the other two rhythmic groups, indicating that the guidance effect may be modulated by the type of information provided during practice. Moreover, significant performance improvement in the dual-task condition where the irregular rhythm counting task was applied as a secondary task also suggested that lower involvement of conscious control may result in better performance in bimanual coordination.

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Illustration of different augmented feedback.(A) Lissajous (continuous visuospatial) feedback. Note that the dotted circle configuration is for clarity of illustration and was not seen by the participant. (B) Color (discrete visual rhythmic) feedback. (C) Tone (discrete auditory rhythmic) feedback.
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pone.0149221.g002: Illustration of different augmented feedback.(A) Lissajous (continuous visuospatial) feedback. Note that the dotted circle configuration is for clarity of illustration and was not seen by the participant. (B) Color (discrete visual rhythmic) feedback. (C) Tone (discrete auditory rhythmic) feedback.

Mentions: During the experiment, participants learned to move their arms along the medial-lateral direction cyclically with one arm leading the other by a quarter-cycle, namely a 90°-out-of-phase (ϕ = 90°) coordination pattern. Compared with in-phase (ϕ = 0°) and anti-phase (ϕ = 180°) coordination patterns, stable and consistent performance of the 90°-out-of-phase coordination pattern requires intensive practice [11, 14]. Each participant was assigned to one of the three groups receiving different types of augmented feedback during practice. (1) Lissajous group. A cyan cursor (0.6 degree in diameter) of which abscissa and ordinate representing the positions of the arms on the track was presented continuously throughout a learning trial. Specifically, the participant’s right-arm movement along the track would move the cursor along the horizontal axis (x coordinate), and the left-arm movement would move the cursor along the vertical axis (y coordinate). The trajectory of the cursor motion can be described by the following equation representing complex harmonic motion known as Lissajous curves [27]:x=Asin(at+δ),y=Bsin(bt)(1)where a and b indicate angular velocity, δ indicates phase difference, and A and B are scaling factors. According to the Eq (1), when moving the arms with the same frequency (a / b = 1) and amplitude (A = B) but with the phase difference of 90 degrees (δ = 90°), the cursor would move along a circular trajectory (Fig 2A). (2) Color group. In the cyclical medial-lateral arm movements carried out by the participant, there were two reversal points in a cycle for each arm. When the participant’s right arm reached the reversal points, a yellow disc (4 degrees in diameter) would flash in the center of the screen, and when the left arm reached the reversal points, a red disc would flash. The discs were presented for 150 ms after each onset. If the participant coordinated the bimanual movement correctly, they would see a rhythmic, equally spaced alternation of the yellow and the red discs (Fig 2B). (3) Tone group. Similar to the Color group, the reversal points of the movement would be detected, but it elicited feedback in the form of low-pitch (700 Hz) and high-pitch (1040 Hz) tones for right and left arms, respectively. The tone would last for 150 ms after its onset. Therefore, correct coordination of the arm movements would lead to rhythmic, equally spaced alternation of the low-pitch and the high-pitch tones (Fig 2C). By providing concurrent augmented feedback as indicated above, participants received information about their performance instantly and made on-line adjustments accordingly.


Bimanual Coordination Learning with Different Augmented Feedback Modalities and Information Types.

Chiou SC, Chang EC - PLoS ONE (2016)

Illustration of different augmented feedback.(A) Lissajous (continuous visuospatial) feedback. Note that the dotted circle configuration is for clarity of illustration and was not seen by the participant. (B) Color (discrete visual rhythmic) feedback. (C) Tone (discrete auditory rhythmic) feedback.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4764518&req=5

pone.0149221.g002: Illustration of different augmented feedback.(A) Lissajous (continuous visuospatial) feedback. Note that the dotted circle configuration is for clarity of illustration and was not seen by the participant. (B) Color (discrete visual rhythmic) feedback. (C) Tone (discrete auditory rhythmic) feedback.
Mentions: During the experiment, participants learned to move their arms along the medial-lateral direction cyclically with one arm leading the other by a quarter-cycle, namely a 90°-out-of-phase (ϕ = 90°) coordination pattern. Compared with in-phase (ϕ = 0°) and anti-phase (ϕ = 180°) coordination patterns, stable and consistent performance of the 90°-out-of-phase coordination pattern requires intensive practice [11, 14]. Each participant was assigned to one of the three groups receiving different types of augmented feedback during practice. (1) Lissajous group. A cyan cursor (0.6 degree in diameter) of which abscissa and ordinate representing the positions of the arms on the track was presented continuously throughout a learning trial. Specifically, the participant’s right-arm movement along the track would move the cursor along the horizontal axis (x coordinate), and the left-arm movement would move the cursor along the vertical axis (y coordinate). The trajectory of the cursor motion can be described by the following equation representing complex harmonic motion known as Lissajous curves [27]:x=Asin(at+δ),y=Bsin(bt)(1)where a and b indicate angular velocity, δ indicates phase difference, and A and B are scaling factors. According to the Eq (1), when moving the arms with the same frequency (a / b = 1) and amplitude (A = B) but with the phase difference of 90 degrees (δ = 90°), the cursor would move along a circular trajectory (Fig 2A). (2) Color group. In the cyclical medial-lateral arm movements carried out by the participant, there were two reversal points in a cycle for each arm. When the participant’s right arm reached the reversal points, a yellow disc (4 degrees in diameter) would flash in the center of the screen, and when the left arm reached the reversal points, a red disc would flash. The discs were presented for 150 ms after each onset. If the participant coordinated the bimanual movement correctly, they would see a rhythmic, equally spaced alternation of the yellow and the red discs (Fig 2B). (3) Tone group. Similar to the Color group, the reversal points of the movement would be detected, but it elicited feedback in the form of low-pitch (700 Hz) and high-pitch (1040 Hz) tones for right and left arms, respectively. The tone would last for 150 ms after its onset. Therefore, correct coordination of the arm movements would lead to rhythmic, equally spaced alternation of the low-pitch and the high-pitch tones (Fig 2C). By providing concurrent augmented feedback as indicated above, participants received information about their performance instantly and made on-line adjustments accordingly.

Bottom Line: Previous studies have shown that bimanual coordination learning is more resistant to the removal of augmented feedback when acquired with auditory than with visual channel.The results showed diverse performance change after practice when the feedback was removed between Lissajous and the other two rhythmic groups, indicating that the guidance effect may be modulated by the type of information provided during practice.Moreover, significant performance improvement in the dual-task condition where the irregular rhythm counting task was applied as a secondary task also suggested that lower involvement of conscious control may result in better performance in bimanual coordination.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, National Central University, Taoyuan City, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT
Previous studies have shown that bimanual coordination learning is more resistant to the removal of augmented feedback when acquired with auditory than with visual channel. However, it is unclear whether this differential "guidance effect" between feedback modalities is due to enhanced sensorimotor integration via the non-dominant auditory channel or strengthened linkage to kinesthetic information under rhythmic input. The current study aimed to examine how modalities (visual vs. auditory) and information types (continuous visuospatial vs. discrete rhythmic) of concurrent augmented feedback influence bimanual coordination learning. Participants either learned a 90°-out-of-phase pattern for three consecutive days with Lissajous feedback indicating the integrated position of both arms, or with visual or auditory rhythmic feedback reflecting the relative timing of the movement. The results showed diverse performance change after practice when the feedback was removed between Lissajous and the other two rhythmic groups, indicating that the guidance effect may be modulated by the type of information provided during practice. Moreover, significant performance improvement in the dual-task condition where the irregular rhythm counting task was applied as a secondary task also suggested that lower involvement of conscious control may result in better performance in bimanual coordination.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus