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Intact Acquisition and Short-Term Retention of Non-Motor Procedural Learning in Parkinson's Disease.

Panouillères MT, Tofaris GK, Brown P, Jenkinson N - PLoS ONE (2016)

Bottom Line: People with PD both ON and OFF their normal medication were compared to healthy older adults and young adults.The results of this study show that all groups of participants acquired and retained the two skills (mirror-reading and word-specific) similarly.These results suggest that neither healthy ageing nor the degeneration within the basal ganglia that occurs in PD does affect the mechanisms that underpin the acquisition of these new non-motor procedural learning skills and their short-term memories.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Procedural learning is a form of memory where people implicitly acquire a skill through repeated practice. People with Parkinson's disease (PD) have been found to acquire motor adaptation, a form of motor procedural learning, similarly to healthy older adults but they have deficits in long-term retention. A similar pattern of normal learning on initial exposure with a deficit in retention seen on subsequent days has also been seen in mirror-reading, a form of non-motor procedural learning. It is a well-studied fact that disrupting sleep will impair the consolidation of procedural memories. Given the prevalence of sleep disturbances in PD, the lack of retention on following days seen in these studies could simply be a side effect of this well-known symptom of PD. Because of this, we wondered whether people with PD would present with deficits in the short-term retention of a non-motor procedural learning task, when the test of retention was done the same day as the initial exposure. The aim of the present study was then to investigate acquisition and retention in the immediate short term of cognitive procedural learning using the mirror-reading task in people with PD. This task involved two conditions: one where triads of mirror-inverted words were always new that allowed assessing the learning of mirror-reading skill and another one where some of the triads were presented repeatedly during the experiment that allowed assessing the word-specific learning. People with PD both ON and OFF their normal medication were compared to healthy older adults and young adults. Participants were re-tested 50 minutes break after initial exposure to probe for short-term retention. The results of this study show that all groups of participants acquired and retained the two skills (mirror-reading and word-specific) similarly. These results suggest that neither healthy ageing nor the degeneration within the basal ganglia that occurs in PD does affect the mechanisms that underpin the acquisition of these new non-motor procedural learning skills and their short-term memories.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Mean reading times necessary for the participants to read the non-repeated triads (A) and the repeated triads (B) of mirrored-inverted words.The mean reading time (in seconds, log-transformed) was plotted as a function of the experimental blocks (1 to 10) for the young adults (grey), the older adults (black), the PD ON their medication (purple) and the PD OFF their medication (cyan). The blocks 6 to 10 were performed following a 50-minutes break represented by the dashed vertical line. Error bars are standard-error of the mean.
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pone.0149224.g002: Mean reading times necessary for the participants to read the non-repeated triads (A) and the repeated triads (B) of mirrored-inverted words.The mean reading time (in seconds, log-transformed) was plotted as a function of the experimental blocks (1 to 10) for the young adults (grey), the older adults (black), the PD ON their medication (purple) and the PD OFF their medication (cyan). The blocks 6 to 10 were performed following a 50-minutes break represented by the dashed vertical line. Error bars are standard-error of the mean.

Mentions: An improvement in reading time occurred for all subjects (Fig 2A) as they practiced the mirror reading task, visible by the progressive decrease in reading time across the blocks (Block effect: F[4,158] = 13.56, p<0.001). All groups improved their reading speed more during the first exposure to the mirror-reading task than during the second one that followed the 50-minutes break (Phase effect: F[1,158] = 21.48, p<0.001; Phase and Block interaction: F[4,158] = 26.67, p<0.001). Throughout the entire experiment, the only group difference was due to the young adults reading faster than older adults (Group effect: F[3,45] = 6.75, p<0.001; Bonferroni post-hoc comparisons: young vs PD OFF p<0.05; young vs older adults and young vs PD ON: p<0.01). The reading time of people with PD both ON and OFF their medication was matched to that one of older adults (Bonferroni post-hoc comparisons: p = 1).


Intact Acquisition and Short-Term Retention of Non-Motor Procedural Learning in Parkinson's Disease.

Panouillères MT, Tofaris GK, Brown P, Jenkinson N - PLoS ONE (2016)

Mean reading times necessary for the participants to read the non-repeated triads (A) and the repeated triads (B) of mirrored-inverted words.The mean reading time (in seconds, log-transformed) was plotted as a function of the experimental blocks (1 to 10) for the young adults (grey), the older adults (black), the PD ON their medication (purple) and the PD OFF their medication (cyan). The blocks 6 to 10 were performed following a 50-minutes break represented by the dashed vertical line. Error bars are standard-error of the mean.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4764369&req=5

pone.0149224.g002: Mean reading times necessary for the participants to read the non-repeated triads (A) and the repeated triads (B) of mirrored-inverted words.The mean reading time (in seconds, log-transformed) was plotted as a function of the experimental blocks (1 to 10) for the young adults (grey), the older adults (black), the PD ON their medication (purple) and the PD OFF their medication (cyan). The blocks 6 to 10 were performed following a 50-minutes break represented by the dashed vertical line. Error bars are standard-error of the mean.
Mentions: An improvement in reading time occurred for all subjects (Fig 2A) as they practiced the mirror reading task, visible by the progressive decrease in reading time across the blocks (Block effect: F[4,158] = 13.56, p<0.001). All groups improved their reading speed more during the first exposure to the mirror-reading task than during the second one that followed the 50-minutes break (Phase effect: F[1,158] = 21.48, p<0.001; Phase and Block interaction: F[4,158] = 26.67, p<0.001). Throughout the entire experiment, the only group difference was due to the young adults reading faster than older adults (Group effect: F[3,45] = 6.75, p<0.001; Bonferroni post-hoc comparisons: young vs PD OFF p<0.05; young vs older adults and young vs PD ON: p<0.01). The reading time of people with PD both ON and OFF their medication was matched to that one of older adults (Bonferroni post-hoc comparisons: p = 1).

Bottom Line: People with PD both ON and OFF their normal medication were compared to healthy older adults and young adults.The results of this study show that all groups of participants acquired and retained the two skills (mirror-reading and word-specific) similarly.These results suggest that neither healthy ageing nor the degeneration within the basal ganglia that occurs in PD does affect the mechanisms that underpin the acquisition of these new non-motor procedural learning skills and their short-term memories.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Procedural learning is a form of memory where people implicitly acquire a skill through repeated practice. People with Parkinson's disease (PD) have been found to acquire motor adaptation, a form of motor procedural learning, similarly to healthy older adults but they have deficits in long-term retention. A similar pattern of normal learning on initial exposure with a deficit in retention seen on subsequent days has also been seen in mirror-reading, a form of non-motor procedural learning. It is a well-studied fact that disrupting sleep will impair the consolidation of procedural memories. Given the prevalence of sleep disturbances in PD, the lack of retention on following days seen in these studies could simply be a side effect of this well-known symptom of PD. Because of this, we wondered whether people with PD would present with deficits in the short-term retention of a non-motor procedural learning task, when the test of retention was done the same day as the initial exposure. The aim of the present study was then to investigate acquisition and retention in the immediate short term of cognitive procedural learning using the mirror-reading task in people with PD. This task involved two conditions: one where triads of mirror-inverted words were always new that allowed assessing the learning of mirror-reading skill and another one where some of the triads were presented repeatedly during the experiment that allowed assessing the word-specific learning. People with PD both ON and OFF their normal medication were compared to healthy older adults and young adults. Participants were re-tested 50 minutes break after initial exposure to probe for short-term retention. The results of this study show that all groups of participants acquired and retained the two skills (mirror-reading and word-specific) similarly. These results suggest that neither healthy ageing nor the degeneration within the basal ganglia that occurs in PD does affect the mechanisms that underpin the acquisition of these new non-motor procedural learning skills and their short-term memories.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus