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The landscape epidemiology of echinococcoses.

Cadavid Restrepo AM, Yang YR, McManus DP, Gray DJ, Giraudoux P, Barnes TS, Williams GM, Soares Magalhães RJ, Hamm NA, Clements AC - Infect Dis Poverty (2016)

Bottom Line: Human infection results in chronic disease with poor prognosis and serious medical, social and economic consequences for vulnerable populations.According to recent estimates, the geographical distribution of Echinococcus spp. infections is expanding and becoming an emerging and re-emerging problem in several regions of the world.Therefore, landscape epidemiology offers a unique opportunity to quantify and predict the ecological risk of infection at multiple spatial and temporal scales.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research School of Population Health, The Australian National University, Canberra, New South Wales, Australia. angelamcr@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Echinococcoses are parasitic diseases of major public health importance globally. Human infection results in chronic disease with poor prognosis and serious medical, social and economic consequences for vulnerable populations. According to recent estimates, the geographical distribution of Echinococcus spp. infections is expanding and becoming an emerging and re-emerging problem in several regions of the world. Echinococcosis endemicity is geographically heterogeneous and over time it may be affected by global environmental change. Therefore, landscape epidemiology offers a unique opportunity to quantify and predict the ecological risk of infection at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Here, we review the most relevant environmental sources of spatial variation in human echinococcosis risk, and describe the potential applications of landscape epidemiological studies to characterise the current patterns of parasite transmission across natural and human-altered landscapes. We advocate future work promoting the use of this approach as a support tool for decision-making that facilitates the design, implementation and monitoring of spatially targeted interventions to reduce the burden of human echinococcoses in disease-endemic areas.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Conceptual diagram of the environmental factors influencing the transmission dynamics of Echinococcus multilocularis at different spatial scales
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Fig2: Conceptual diagram of the environmental factors influencing the transmission dynamics of Echinococcus multilocularis at different spatial scales

Mentions: Genetic factors and immunological interactions between the parasite and hosts are also associated with echinococcosis risk at local and community levels. These factors affect the development of the adult parasite in the intestine of definitive hosts and determine the time course of the production and viability of the eggs [79]. Genetic and immunological factors also govern differences in the reproductive potential of the hosts and influence the susceptibility/resistance of humans and animals to the infection [80]. Patients with impaired immune response appear to have increased susceptibility to E. granulosus and E. multilocularis infections, and are more prone to develop severe disease [81–83]. Similarly, an increase risk of infection with E. multilocularis has been observed in experimental immunosuppressed animals [80]. Figures 1 and 2 show a conceptual diagram of the environmental factors influencing the transmission dynamics of E. granulosus and E. multilocularis, respectively, at different spatial scales.Fig. 1


The landscape epidemiology of echinococcoses.

Cadavid Restrepo AM, Yang YR, McManus DP, Gray DJ, Giraudoux P, Barnes TS, Williams GM, Soares Magalhães RJ, Hamm NA, Clements AC - Infect Dis Poverty (2016)

Conceptual diagram of the environmental factors influencing the transmission dynamics of Echinococcus multilocularis at different spatial scales
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4759770&req=5

Fig2: Conceptual diagram of the environmental factors influencing the transmission dynamics of Echinococcus multilocularis at different spatial scales
Mentions: Genetic factors and immunological interactions between the parasite and hosts are also associated with echinococcosis risk at local and community levels. These factors affect the development of the adult parasite in the intestine of definitive hosts and determine the time course of the production and viability of the eggs [79]. Genetic and immunological factors also govern differences in the reproductive potential of the hosts and influence the susceptibility/resistance of humans and animals to the infection [80]. Patients with impaired immune response appear to have increased susceptibility to E. granulosus and E. multilocularis infections, and are more prone to develop severe disease [81–83]. Similarly, an increase risk of infection with E. multilocularis has been observed in experimental immunosuppressed animals [80]. Figures 1 and 2 show a conceptual diagram of the environmental factors influencing the transmission dynamics of E. granulosus and E. multilocularis, respectively, at different spatial scales.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Human infection results in chronic disease with poor prognosis and serious medical, social and economic consequences for vulnerable populations.According to recent estimates, the geographical distribution of Echinococcus spp. infections is expanding and becoming an emerging and re-emerging problem in several regions of the world.Therefore, landscape epidemiology offers a unique opportunity to quantify and predict the ecological risk of infection at multiple spatial and temporal scales.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research School of Population Health, The Australian National University, Canberra, New South Wales, Australia. angelamcr@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Echinococcoses are parasitic diseases of major public health importance globally. Human infection results in chronic disease with poor prognosis and serious medical, social and economic consequences for vulnerable populations. According to recent estimates, the geographical distribution of Echinococcus spp. infections is expanding and becoming an emerging and re-emerging problem in several regions of the world. Echinococcosis endemicity is geographically heterogeneous and over time it may be affected by global environmental change. Therefore, landscape epidemiology offers a unique opportunity to quantify and predict the ecological risk of infection at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Here, we review the most relevant environmental sources of spatial variation in human echinococcosis risk, and describe the potential applications of landscape epidemiological studies to characterise the current patterns of parasite transmission across natural and human-altered landscapes. We advocate future work promoting the use of this approach as a support tool for decision-making that facilitates the design, implementation and monitoring of spatially targeted interventions to reduce the burden of human echinococcoses in disease-endemic areas.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus