Limits...
Acute ecotoxicology of natural oil and gas condensate to coral reef larvae.

Negri AP, Brinkman DL, Flores F, Botté ES, Jones RJ, Webster NS - Sci Rep (2016)

Bottom Line: The metamorphosis of coral larvae was inhibited at total petroleum aromatic hydrocarbon (TPAH) concentrations of water accommodated fractions (WAF) as low as 103 μg l(-1), similar to concentrations detected in seawater following large spills.In contrast, the sensitivity of sponge larvae to condensate WAF (>10,000 μg l(-1) TPAH) was far less than coral in the presence and absence of UV, but similar to that of other marine invertebrates.While these results highlight the relative sensitivity of coral larvae to oil, further research is needed to better understand and predict the impacts and risks posed by hydrocarbons to tropical reef systems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, 4810, Queensland, and Perth, 6009, Western Australia, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Risks posed by oil spills to coral reefs are difficult to evaluate, partially due to the absence of studies that adequately assess toxicity to relevant coral reef species. Here we experimentally tested the acute toxicity of condensate, representing a fraction of light crude oil, to coral (Acropora tenuis) and sponge (Rhopaloeides odorabile) larvae. The metamorphosis of coral larvae was inhibited at total petroleum aromatic hydrocarbon (TPAH) concentrations of water accommodated fractions (WAF) as low as 103 μg l(-1), similar to concentrations detected in seawater following large spills. The sensitivity of coral larvae increased by 40% when co-exposed to UV light that they might encounter in shallow reefal systems. Condensate WAF was more toxic to coral larvae than predicted by summing the toxicity of its main components (benzene, toluene, p-xylene and napthalene). In contrast, the sensitivity of sponge larvae to condensate WAF (>10,000 μg l(-1) TPAH) was far less than coral in the presence and absence of UV, but similar to that of other marine invertebrates. While these results highlight the relative sensitivity of coral larvae to oil, further research is needed to better understand and predict the impacts and risks posed by hydrocarbons to tropical reef systems.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Photomicrographs of 24 h old juvenile corals showing normal post settlement metamorphosis, showing completion of primary and secondary mesentery formation of a single polyp with six tentacles surrounding a mouth, partial and disrupted metamorphosis when exposed to PAHs and WAF condensate where (a) control, (b), 5,600 μg l−1 TPAH in stabilized condensate WAF and (c) 34,000 μg l−1 benzene WAF.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4759697&req=5

f1: Photomicrographs of 24 h old juvenile corals showing normal post settlement metamorphosis, showing completion of primary and secondary mesentery formation of a single polyp with six tentacles surrounding a mouth, partial and disrupted metamorphosis when exposed to PAHs and WAF condensate where (a) control, (b), 5,600 μg l−1 TPAH in stabilized condensate WAF and (c) 34,000 μg l−1 benzene WAF.

Mentions: After 24 h in uncontaminated seawater 70–84% of ‘control’ coral larvae underwent successful attachment and metamorphosis in each experiment (Table 3). No difference in metamorphosis success (performance) was observed between control larvae (7–13 days old) over this period (ANOVA F5 = 1.4, p = 0.24). Coral larvae exposed to condensate WAF over 24 h also exhibited normal settlement and metamorphosis behaviour at low concentrations (<100 μg l−1), but this development process became increasingly inhibited at higher condensate concentrations (Fig. 1). Fitting the % inhibition data to a logistic equation allowed calculation of concentrations that inhibited metamorphosis by 10% (IC10) = 103 μg l−1 and 50% (IC50) = 339 μg l−1 TPAH (Table 3). Co-exposing coral larvae to high UV for 2 h under otherwise identical conditions inhibited metamorphosis by 50% at a significantly lower concentration of IC50 = 132 μg l−1 TPAH (p < 0.05, Fig. 2b, Table 3).


Acute ecotoxicology of natural oil and gas condensate to coral reef larvae.

Negri AP, Brinkman DL, Flores F, Botté ES, Jones RJ, Webster NS - Sci Rep (2016)

Photomicrographs of 24 h old juvenile corals showing normal post settlement metamorphosis, showing completion of primary and secondary mesentery formation of a single polyp with six tentacles surrounding a mouth, partial and disrupted metamorphosis when exposed to PAHs and WAF condensate where (a) control, (b), 5,600 μg l−1 TPAH in stabilized condensate WAF and (c) 34,000 μg l−1 benzene WAF.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4759697&req=5

f1: Photomicrographs of 24 h old juvenile corals showing normal post settlement metamorphosis, showing completion of primary and secondary mesentery formation of a single polyp with six tentacles surrounding a mouth, partial and disrupted metamorphosis when exposed to PAHs and WAF condensate where (a) control, (b), 5,600 μg l−1 TPAH in stabilized condensate WAF and (c) 34,000 μg l−1 benzene WAF.
Mentions: After 24 h in uncontaminated seawater 70–84% of ‘control’ coral larvae underwent successful attachment and metamorphosis in each experiment (Table 3). No difference in metamorphosis success (performance) was observed between control larvae (7–13 days old) over this period (ANOVA F5 = 1.4, p = 0.24). Coral larvae exposed to condensate WAF over 24 h also exhibited normal settlement and metamorphosis behaviour at low concentrations (<100 μg l−1), but this development process became increasingly inhibited at higher condensate concentrations (Fig. 1). Fitting the % inhibition data to a logistic equation allowed calculation of concentrations that inhibited metamorphosis by 10% (IC10) = 103 μg l−1 and 50% (IC50) = 339 μg l−1 TPAH (Table 3). Co-exposing coral larvae to high UV for 2 h under otherwise identical conditions inhibited metamorphosis by 50% at a significantly lower concentration of IC50 = 132 μg l−1 TPAH (p < 0.05, Fig. 2b, Table 3).

Bottom Line: The metamorphosis of coral larvae was inhibited at total petroleum aromatic hydrocarbon (TPAH) concentrations of water accommodated fractions (WAF) as low as 103 μg l(-1), similar to concentrations detected in seawater following large spills.In contrast, the sensitivity of sponge larvae to condensate WAF (>10,000 μg l(-1) TPAH) was far less than coral in the presence and absence of UV, but similar to that of other marine invertebrates.While these results highlight the relative sensitivity of coral larvae to oil, further research is needed to better understand and predict the impacts and risks posed by hydrocarbons to tropical reef systems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, 4810, Queensland, and Perth, 6009, Western Australia, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Risks posed by oil spills to coral reefs are difficult to evaluate, partially due to the absence of studies that adequately assess toxicity to relevant coral reef species. Here we experimentally tested the acute toxicity of condensate, representing a fraction of light crude oil, to coral (Acropora tenuis) and sponge (Rhopaloeides odorabile) larvae. The metamorphosis of coral larvae was inhibited at total petroleum aromatic hydrocarbon (TPAH) concentrations of water accommodated fractions (WAF) as low as 103 μg l(-1), similar to concentrations detected in seawater following large spills. The sensitivity of coral larvae increased by 40% when co-exposed to UV light that they might encounter in shallow reefal systems. Condensate WAF was more toxic to coral larvae than predicted by summing the toxicity of its main components (benzene, toluene, p-xylene and napthalene). In contrast, the sensitivity of sponge larvae to condensate WAF (>10,000 μg l(-1) TPAH) was far less than coral in the presence and absence of UV, but similar to that of other marine invertebrates. While these results highlight the relative sensitivity of coral larvae to oil, further research is needed to better understand and predict the impacts and risks posed by hydrocarbons to tropical reef systems.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus