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Cladosporium cladosporioides from the perspectives of medical and biotechnological approaches

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Fungi are important natural product sources that have enormous potential for the production of novel compounds for use in pharmacology, agricultural applications and industry. Compared with other natural sources such as plants, fungi are highly diverse but understudied. However, research on Cladosporium cladosporioides revealed the existence of bioactive products such as p-methylbenzoic acid, ergosterol peroxide (EP) and calphostin C as well as enzymes including pectin methylesterase (PME), polygalacturonase (PG) and chlorpyrifos hydrolase. p-Methylbenzoic acid has ability to synthesise 1,5-benzodiazepine and its derivatives, polyethylene terephthalate and eicosapentaenoic acid. EP has anticancer, antiangiogenic, antibacterial, anti-oxidative and immunosuppressive properties. Calphostin C inhibits protein kinase C (PKC) by inactivating both PKC-epsilon and PKC-alpha. In addition, calphostin C stimulates apoptosis in WEHI-231 cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. Based on the stimulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress in some types of cancer, calphostin C has also been evaluated as a potential photodynamic therapeutic agent. Methylesterase (PME) and PG have garnered attention because of their usage in the food processing industry and significant physiological function in plants. Chlorpyrifos, a human, animal and plant toxin, can be degraded and eliminated by chlorpyrifos hydrolase.

No MeSH data available.


p-Toluic acid structure
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Fig1: p-Toluic acid structure

Mentions: p-Methylbenzoic acid (Fig. 1), known as p-toluic acid, was extracted from C. cladosporioides an isolate from marine sponge and later identified using spectroscopic methods (San-Martin et al. 2005). p-Methylbenzoic acid promotes the synthesis of 1,5-benzodiazepine and its derivatives, which are active compounds against diverse targets such as interleukin converting enzymes (ICE), potassium blockers (Ik) and peptide hormones (CCK) (Herpin et al. 2000; Varala et al. 2007). Benzodiazepines are widely used as antianxiety, anticonvulsant, anti-depressive, anti-inflammatory agents, analgesics and sedatives (Tsoleridis et al. 2008). Benzodiazepines have a variety of activities including antiulcer, antileukaemic, vasopressin antagonist, antiplatelet and endothelial antagonist and relief of skeletal muscle joint pain (Kumar and Joshi 2007; Aasth et al. 2013). Benzodiazepines are also used as fibre dyes and are used to produce fused ring compounds such as oxadiazolo-, triazolo-, oxazino- or furano benzodiazepines (Wu et al. 2006; Aasth et al. 2013). Initially used to yield polyethylene terephthalate (PET) via condensation polymerisation with ethylene glycol, p-methylbenzoic acid is an intermediate in the production of terephthalic acid (Speight 1999). PET is widely used commercially and has one of the highest manufactured tonnages of all polymer products in the world (Jankauskaitė et al. 2008). PET is used to produce fabrics, fibres and textiles. In addition, PET has progressively dominated the bottle market for bottled water and carbonated soft drinks as well as food containers and packaging materials. These days, PET is increasingly being used to produce fibre strengthened composite (Giles and Bain 2001; Vakili and Fard 2010).Fig. 1


Cladosporium cladosporioides from the perspectives of medical and biotechnological approaches
p-Toluic acid structure
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4697913&req=5

Fig1: p-Toluic acid structure
Mentions: p-Methylbenzoic acid (Fig. 1), known as p-toluic acid, was extracted from C. cladosporioides an isolate from marine sponge and later identified using spectroscopic methods (San-Martin et al. 2005). p-Methylbenzoic acid promotes the synthesis of 1,5-benzodiazepine and its derivatives, which are active compounds against diverse targets such as interleukin converting enzymes (ICE), potassium blockers (Ik) and peptide hormones (CCK) (Herpin et al. 2000; Varala et al. 2007). Benzodiazepines are widely used as antianxiety, anticonvulsant, anti-depressive, anti-inflammatory agents, analgesics and sedatives (Tsoleridis et al. 2008). Benzodiazepines have a variety of activities including antiulcer, antileukaemic, vasopressin antagonist, antiplatelet and endothelial antagonist and relief of skeletal muscle joint pain (Kumar and Joshi 2007; Aasth et al. 2013). Benzodiazepines are also used as fibre dyes and are used to produce fused ring compounds such as oxadiazolo-, triazolo-, oxazino- or furano benzodiazepines (Wu et al. 2006; Aasth et al. 2013). Initially used to yield polyethylene terephthalate (PET) via condensation polymerisation with ethylene glycol, p-methylbenzoic acid is an intermediate in the production of terephthalic acid (Speight 1999). PET is widely used commercially and has one of the highest manufactured tonnages of all polymer products in the world (Jankauskaitė et al. 2008). PET is used to produce fabrics, fibres and textiles. In addition, PET has progressively dominated the bottle market for bottled water and carbonated soft drinks as well as food containers and packaging materials. These days, PET is increasingly being used to produce fibre strengthened composite (Giles and Bain 2001; Vakili and Fard 2010).Fig. 1

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Fungi are important natural product sources that have enormous potential for the production of novel compounds for use in pharmacology, agricultural applications and industry. Compared with other natural sources such as plants, fungi are highly diverse but understudied. However, research on Cladosporium cladosporioides revealed the existence of bioactive products such as p-methylbenzoic acid, ergosterol peroxide (EP) and calphostin C as well as enzymes including pectin methylesterase (PME), polygalacturonase (PG) and chlorpyrifos hydrolase. p-Methylbenzoic acid has ability to synthesise 1,5-benzodiazepine and its derivatives, polyethylene terephthalate and eicosapentaenoic acid. EP has anticancer, antiangiogenic, antibacterial, anti-oxidative and immunosuppressive properties. Calphostin C inhibits protein kinase C (PKC) by inactivating both PKC-epsilon and PKC-alpha. In addition, calphostin C stimulates apoptosis in WEHI-231 cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. Based on the stimulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress in some types of cancer, calphostin C has also been evaluated as a potential photodynamic therapeutic agent. Methylesterase (PME) and PG have garnered attention because of their usage in the food processing industry and significant physiological function in plants. Chlorpyrifos, a human, animal and plant toxin, can be degraded and eliminated by chlorpyrifos hydrolase.

No MeSH data available.