Limits...
Coral Reefs at the Northernmost Tip of Borneo: An Assessment of Scleractinian Species Richness Patterns and Benthic Reef Assemblages.

Waheed Z, van Mil HG, Syed Hussein MA, Jumin R, Golam Ahad B, Hoeksema BW - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Only 7% of the examined reefs had > 75% hard coral cover, while the majority of the reef sites were rated fair (51%) and good (38%).Sites with low coral cover and high rubble fragments are evidence of blast fishing, although the observed damage appeared old.Depth was a dominant factor in influencing the coral species composition and benthic reef communities in the TMP.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Marine Zoology, Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
The coral reefs at the northernmost tip of Sabah, Borneo will be established under a marine protected area: the Tun Mustapha Park (TMP) by the end of 2015. This area is a passage where the Sulu Sea meets the South China Sea and it is situated at the border of the area of maximum marine biodiversity, the Coral Triangle. The TMP includes fringing and patch reefs established on a relatively shallow sea floor. Surveys were carried out to examine features of the coral reefs in terms of scleractinian species richness, and benthic reef assemblages following the Reef Check substrate categories, with emphasis on hard coral cover. Variation in scleractinian diversity was based on the species composition of coral families Fungiidae (n = 39), Agariciidae (n = 30) and Euphylliidae (n = 15). The number of coral species was highest at reefs with a larger depth gradient i.e. at the periphery of the study area and in the deep South Banggi Channel. Average live hard coral cover across the sites was 49%. Only 7% of the examined reefs had > 75% hard coral cover, while the majority of the reef sites were rated fair (51%) and good (38%). Sites with low coral cover and high rubble fragments are evidence of blast fishing, although the observed damage appeared old. Depth was a dominant factor in influencing the coral species composition and benthic reef communities in the TMP. Besides filling in the information gaps regarding species richness and benthic cover for reef areas that were previously without any data, the results of this study together with information that is already available on the coral reefs of TMP will be used to make informed decisions on zoning plans for conservation priorities in the proposed park.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Overlay of the significant clusters from Fig 3 based on the SIMPROF analysis.Symbols in blue represent deep reef sites (> 20 m depth). Numbers indicate the total coral species for all three coral families. Sites with ≥ 45 species are shown in red bold font. Wind rose showing dominant wind directions is based on observations between January 2012 and November 2013 obtained from the Kudat Airport, Sabah from windfinder.com.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4697805&req=5

pone.0146006.g004: Overlay of the significant clusters from Fig 3 based on the SIMPROF analysis.Symbols in blue represent deep reef sites (> 20 m depth). Numbers indicate the total coral species for all three coral families. Sites with ≥ 45 species are shown in red bold font. Wind rose showing dominant wind directions is based on observations between January 2012 and November 2013 obtained from the Kudat Airport, Sabah from windfinder.com.

Mentions: The SIMPROF test indicated four distinct clusters and an outlier (site 45) (Fig 3). There was a distinction of two groups at similarity index of ~ 69: the larger of the two groups is further subdivided into two smaller groups (Groups 1 and 3) and one large group (Group 2) at similarity index ~ 70, and another small group (Group 4) that is composed of six sites. The species richness pattern that emerged when the clusters were overlaid on the map showed that sites with high species richness (n ≥ 45) were located primarily at the periphery of the study site (Fig 4). Reef sites that were adjacent to the mainland (Group 4) had noticeably lower species richness (except site 53, n = 38). These sites were among the shallowest sites during the survey.


Coral Reefs at the Northernmost Tip of Borneo: An Assessment of Scleractinian Species Richness Patterns and Benthic Reef Assemblages.

Waheed Z, van Mil HG, Syed Hussein MA, Jumin R, Golam Ahad B, Hoeksema BW - PLoS ONE (2015)

Overlay of the significant clusters from Fig 3 based on the SIMPROF analysis.Symbols in blue represent deep reef sites (> 20 m depth). Numbers indicate the total coral species for all three coral families. Sites with ≥ 45 species are shown in red bold font. Wind rose showing dominant wind directions is based on observations between January 2012 and November 2013 obtained from the Kudat Airport, Sabah from windfinder.com.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4697805&req=5

pone.0146006.g004: Overlay of the significant clusters from Fig 3 based on the SIMPROF analysis.Symbols in blue represent deep reef sites (> 20 m depth). Numbers indicate the total coral species for all three coral families. Sites with ≥ 45 species are shown in red bold font. Wind rose showing dominant wind directions is based on observations between January 2012 and November 2013 obtained from the Kudat Airport, Sabah from windfinder.com.
Mentions: The SIMPROF test indicated four distinct clusters and an outlier (site 45) (Fig 3). There was a distinction of two groups at similarity index of ~ 69: the larger of the two groups is further subdivided into two smaller groups (Groups 1 and 3) and one large group (Group 2) at similarity index ~ 70, and another small group (Group 4) that is composed of six sites. The species richness pattern that emerged when the clusters were overlaid on the map showed that sites with high species richness (n ≥ 45) were located primarily at the periphery of the study site (Fig 4). Reef sites that were adjacent to the mainland (Group 4) had noticeably lower species richness (except site 53, n = 38). These sites were among the shallowest sites during the survey.

Bottom Line: Only 7% of the examined reefs had > 75% hard coral cover, while the majority of the reef sites were rated fair (51%) and good (38%).Sites with low coral cover and high rubble fragments are evidence of blast fishing, although the observed damage appeared old.Depth was a dominant factor in influencing the coral species composition and benthic reef communities in the TMP.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Marine Zoology, Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
The coral reefs at the northernmost tip of Sabah, Borneo will be established under a marine protected area: the Tun Mustapha Park (TMP) by the end of 2015. This area is a passage where the Sulu Sea meets the South China Sea and it is situated at the border of the area of maximum marine biodiversity, the Coral Triangle. The TMP includes fringing and patch reefs established on a relatively shallow sea floor. Surveys were carried out to examine features of the coral reefs in terms of scleractinian species richness, and benthic reef assemblages following the Reef Check substrate categories, with emphasis on hard coral cover. Variation in scleractinian diversity was based on the species composition of coral families Fungiidae (n = 39), Agariciidae (n = 30) and Euphylliidae (n = 15). The number of coral species was highest at reefs with a larger depth gradient i.e. at the periphery of the study area and in the deep South Banggi Channel. Average live hard coral cover across the sites was 49%. Only 7% of the examined reefs had > 75% hard coral cover, while the majority of the reef sites were rated fair (51%) and good (38%). Sites with low coral cover and high rubble fragments are evidence of blast fishing, although the observed damage appeared old. Depth was a dominant factor in influencing the coral species composition and benthic reef communities in the TMP. Besides filling in the information gaps regarding species richness and benthic cover for reef areas that were previously without any data, the results of this study together with information that is already available on the coral reefs of TMP will be used to make informed decisions on zoning plans for conservation priorities in the proposed park.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus