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Scoping review to identify potential non-antimicrobial interventions to mitigate antimicrobial resistance in commensal enteric bacteria in North American cattle production systems.

Murphy CP, Fajt VR, Scott HM, Foster MJ, Wickwire P, McEwen SA - Epidemiol. Infect. (2015)

Bottom Line: Citations were retained when modifiable non-antimicrobial factors or interventions potentially associated with antimicrobial resistance were described.Most reported associations between the non-antimicrobial modifiable factors or interventions and antimicrobial resistance were not statistically significant (P > 0·05 and a confidence interval including 1), but when significant, the results were not consistent in direction (increase or decrease in antimicrobial resistance) or magnitude.Research is needed to better understand the impacts of promising modifiable factors or interventions on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance before any recommendations can be offered or adopted.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Population Medicine,University of Guelph,Guelph,Ontario,Canada.

ABSTRACT
A scoping review was conducted to identify modifiable non-antimicrobial factors to reduce the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in cattle populations. Searches were developed to retrieve peer-reviewed published studies in animal, human and in vitro microbial populations. Citations were retained when modifiable non-antimicrobial factors or interventions potentially associated with antimicrobial resistance were described. Studies described resistance in five bacterial genera, species or types, and 40 antimicrobials. Modifiable non-antimicrobial factors or interventions ranged widely in type, and the depth of evidence in animal populations was shallow. Specific associations between a factor or intervention with antimicrobial resistance in a population (e.g. associations between organic systems and tetracycline susceptibility in E. coli from cattle) were reported in a maximum of three studies. The identified non-antimicrobial factors or interventions were classified into 16 themes. Most reported associations between the non-antimicrobial modifiable factors or interventions and antimicrobial resistance were not statistically significant (P > 0·05 and a confidence interval including 1), but when significant, the results were not consistent in direction (increase or decrease in antimicrobial resistance) or magnitude. Research is needed to better understand the impacts of promising modifiable factors or interventions on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance before any recommendations can be offered or adopted.

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PRISMA flow chart documenting the literature retrieval* and inclusion/exclusioncriteria for citations to identify modifiable non-antimicrobial factors orinterventions to reduce the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in cattleproduction systems. (* NSA, Search designed to returncitations studying animal populations. NSH, Searchdesigned to return citations studying human or in vitropopulations. NH, Citations studying human-onlypopulations. NIV, Citations studying entirely invitro populations. NA, Citations studyinganimal populations.)
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fig01: PRISMA flow chart documenting the literature retrieval* and inclusion/exclusioncriteria for citations to identify modifiable non-antimicrobial factors orinterventions to reduce the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in cattleproduction systems. (* NSA, Search designed to returncitations studying animal populations. NSH, Searchdesigned to return citations studying human or in vitropopulations. NH, Citations studying human-onlypopulations. NIV, Citations studying entirely invitro populations. NA, Citations studyinganimal populations.)

Mentions: Using the research question stated above, searches were developed to return citations ofinvestigations into non-antimicrobial factors associated with antimicrobial resistance inanimal populations, human populations and in vitro (Fig. 1). For animal population citations, the search focused onantimicrobial resistance in enteric or faecal bacteria and used multiple broad andspecific search terms for antimicrobial susceptibility and animal population(Supplementary Appendix 1, available online). This search used eight databases in the OVIDplatform (Medline, EMBASE, CAB abstracts, Biosis, Zoological Records, Agris, GlobalHealth, Food Science) as well as three databases through the Proquest, formerly CambridgeScientific Abstracts (CSA), interface (Agricola, Biological Sciences, Toxline) and wasperformed from 12 June to 13 July 2011. The search for citations of studies conducted inhuman populations or in vitro included general and specific terms forbacteria (e.g. Enterobacteriaceae or Enterococcus or Escherichiacoli), general antimicrobial susceptibility terms, terms related to changingantimicrobial susceptibilities (e.g. affect or effect or reduce or decrease), and factorsor interventions related to particular actions (e.g. infection control) or pharmacology(e.g. dose-response relationship, pharmacodynamics) (Supplementary Appendix 2). Medlineand CAB Abstracts were searched from 13 October to 31 December 2011. All searches includedall available years of the databases, all geographical locations and were limited to thosepublished in English. All citations were exported and de-duplicated (electronically andmanually) in a web-based bibliographical database manager (RefWorks 2.0; http://www.refworks.com/). Fig. 1.


Scoping review to identify potential non-antimicrobial interventions to mitigate antimicrobial resistance in commensal enteric bacteria in North American cattle production systems.

Murphy CP, Fajt VR, Scott HM, Foster MJ, Wickwire P, McEwen SA - Epidemiol. Infect. (2015)

PRISMA flow chart documenting the literature retrieval* and inclusion/exclusioncriteria for citations to identify modifiable non-antimicrobial factors orinterventions to reduce the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in cattleproduction systems. (* NSA, Search designed to returncitations studying animal populations. NSH, Searchdesigned to return citations studying human or in vitropopulations. NH, Citations studying human-onlypopulations. NIV, Citations studying entirely invitro populations. NA, Citations studyinganimal populations.)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4697299&req=5

fig01: PRISMA flow chart documenting the literature retrieval* and inclusion/exclusioncriteria for citations to identify modifiable non-antimicrobial factors orinterventions to reduce the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in cattleproduction systems. (* NSA, Search designed to returncitations studying animal populations. NSH, Searchdesigned to return citations studying human or in vitropopulations. NH, Citations studying human-onlypopulations. NIV, Citations studying entirely invitro populations. NA, Citations studyinganimal populations.)
Mentions: Using the research question stated above, searches were developed to return citations ofinvestigations into non-antimicrobial factors associated with antimicrobial resistance inanimal populations, human populations and in vitro (Fig. 1). For animal population citations, the search focused onantimicrobial resistance in enteric or faecal bacteria and used multiple broad andspecific search terms for antimicrobial susceptibility and animal population(Supplementary Appendix 1, available online). This search used eight databases in the OVIDplatform (Medline, EMBASE, CAB abstracts, Biosis, Zoological Records, Agris, GlobalHealth, Food Science) as well as three databases through the Proquest, formerly CambridgeScientific Abstracts (CSA), interface (Agricola, Biological Sciences, Toxline) and wasperformed from 12 June to 13 July 2011. The search for citations of studies conducted inhuman populations or in vitro included general and specific terms forbacteria (e.g. Enterobacteriaceae or Enterococcus or Escherichiacoli), general antimicrobial susceptibility terms, terms related to changingantimicrobial susceptibilities (e.g. affect or effect or reduce or decrease), and factorsor interventions related to particular actions (e.g. infection control) or pharmacology(e.g. dose-response relationship, pharmacodynamics) (Supplementary Appendix 2). Medlineand CAB Abstracts were searched from 13 October to 31 December 2011. All searches includedall available years of the databases, all geographical locations and were limited to thosepublished in English. All citations were exported and de-duplicated (electronically andmanually) in a web-based bibliographical database manager (RefWorks 2.0; http://www.refworks.com/). Fig. 1.

Bottom Line: Citations were retained when modifiable non-antimicrobial factors or interventions potentially associated with antimicrobial resistance were described.Most reported associations between the non-antimicrobial modifiable factors or interventions and antimicrobial resistance were not statistically significant (P > 0·05 and a confidence interval including 1), but when significant, the results were not consistent in direction (increase or decrease in antimicrobial resistance) or magnitude.Research is needed to better understand the impacts of promising modifiable factors or interventions on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance before any recommendations can be offered or adopted.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Population Medicine,University of Guelph,Guelph,Ontario,Canada.

ABSTRACT
A scoping review was conducted to identify modifiable non-antimicrobial factors to reduce the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in cattle populations. Searches were developed to retrieve peer-reviewed published studies in animal, human and in vitro microbial populations. Citations were retained when modifiable non-antimicrobial factors or interventions potentially associated with antimicrobial resistance were described. Studies described resistance in five bacterial genera, species or types, and 40 antimicrobials. Modifiable non-antimicrobial factors or interventions ranged widely in type, and the depth of evidence in animal populations was shallow. Specific associations between a factor or intervention with antimicrobial resistance in a population (e.g. associations between organic systems and tetracycline susceptibility in E. coli from cattle) were reported in a maximum of three studies. The identified non-antimicrobial factors or interventions were classified into 16 themes. Most reported associations between the non-antimicrobial modifiable factors or interventions and antimicrobial resistance were not statistically significant (P > 0·05 and a confidence interval including 1), but when significant, the results were not consistent in direction (increase or decrease in antimicrobial resistance) or magnitude. Research is needed to better understand the impacts of promising modifiable factors or interventions on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance before any recommendations can be offered or adopted.

Show MeSH