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Experimental study of iron and multivitamin drops on enamel microhardness of primary tooth.

Pasdar N, Alaghehmand H, Mottaghi F, Tavassoli M - J Int Soc Prev Community Dent (2015 Nov-Dec)

Bottom Line: In all groups, microhardness was decreased, but it was not significant in Eurovit multivitamin group (P = 0.088).The reduction rate in Kharazmi iron group was significant compared to that in other groups (P < 0.005).Hardness reduction percent for Kharazmi iron drop was 28/12 ± 47/43.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Iron and multivitamin drops are being frequently prescribed in children less than 2 years of age. Due to their low pH levels, these drops may lead to the softening of enamel and accelerate the destructive process. The aim of the present study was to investigate the enamel microhardness of primary teeth after exposing them to iron and multivitamin drops.

Materials and methods: Forty healthy anterior teeth were randomly divided into four groups of 10 samples each. Samples were exposed to two iron drops of Kharazmi (Iran) and Ironorm (UK) and two multivitamin drops of Shahdarou (Iran) and Eurovit (Germany) for 5 min. The surface microhardness was measured before and after exposure and data processing was done using statistical paired t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. The surface structure of the teeth was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM).

Results: In all groups, microhardness was decreased, but it was not significant in Eurovit multivitamin group (P = 0.088). The reduction rate in Kharazmi iron group was significant compared to that in other groups (P < 0.005). Hardness reduction percent for Kharazmi iron drop was 28/12 ± 47/43. In SEM analysis, irregular granular appearance was observed in the enamel exposed to Kharazmi iron drop.

Conclusion: The results showed that all the studied drugs have the potential to cause erosion; this potential is the most in Kharazmi iron drop and the least in Eurovit multivitamin drops. Therefore, after using these kinds of drops, preventive measures should be used in children.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

SEM image of the polished enamel which was exposed to Kharazmi iron drop for 5 min. (a) According to this figure, some minor irregularities, porosity, cracks, and fractures can be seen on the enamel surface (1000×). (b) According to this figure, some minor irregularities, porosity, cracks, and fractures can be seen on the enamel surface (3000×)
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Figure 6: SEM image of the polished enamel which was exposed to Kharazmi iron drop for 5 min. (a) According to this figure, some minor irregularities, porosity, cracks, and fractures can be seen on the enamel surface (1000×). (b) According to this figure, some minor irregularities, porosity, cracks, and fractures can be seen on the enamel surface (3000×)

Mentions: The changes in pH range among the test drops varied between 3.36 in Eurovit multivitamin and 1.2 in Kharazmi iron drop. Kharazmi Iron had the highest TA (2.37) and Ironorm iron drop had the lowest TA (0.87). The amount of fluoride was much less than 1 ppm in all the drops and there was not any significant difference between them. The highest concentration of calcium was observed in Eurovit multivitamin and the highest concentration of phosphate was observed in Ironorm iron drop. The citrate rate was higher in Shahdarou than in other drugs [Table 2]. According to the electron microscopic study, the samples exposed to Kharazmi iron drop showed significantly higher porosity than other groups. In this group, some minor irregularities, porosity, cracks, and fractures could be seen on the enamel surface [Figures 1–6].


Experimental study of iron and multivitamin drops on enamel microhardness of primary tooth.

Pasdar N, Alaghehmand H, Mottaghi F, Tavassoli M - J Int Soc Prev Community Dent (2015 Nov-Dec)

SEM image of the polished enamel which was exposed to Kharazmi iron drop for 5 min. (a) According to this figure, some minor irregularities, porosity, cracks, and fractures can be seen on the enamel surface (1000×). (b) According to this figure, some minor irregularities, porosity, cracks, and fractures can be seen on the enamel surface (3000×)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4697239&req=5

Figure 6: SEM image of the polished enamel which was exposed to Kharazmi iron drop for 5 min. (a) According to this figure, some minor irregularities, porosity, cracks, and fractures can be seen on the enamel surface (1000×). (b) According to this figure, some minor irregularities, porosity, cracks, and fractures can be seen on the enamel surface (3000×)
Mentions: The changes in pH range among the test drops varied between 3.36 in Eurovit multivitamin and 1.2 in Kharazmi iron drop. Kharazmi Iron had the highest TA (2.37) and Ironorm iron drop had the lowest TA (0.87). The amount of fluoride was much less than 1 ppm in all the drops and there was not any significant difference between them. The highest concentration of calcium was observed in Eurovit multivitamin and the highest concentration of phosphate was observed in Ironorm iron drop. The citrate rate was higher in Shahdarou than in other drugs [Table 2]. According to the electron microscopic study, the samples exposed to Kharazmi iron drop showed significantly higher porosity than other groups. In this group, some minor irregularities, porosity, cracks, and fractures could be seen on the enamel surface [Figures 1–6].

Bottom Line: In all groups, microhardness was decreased, but it was not significant in Eurovit multivitamin group (P = 0.088).The reduction rate in Kharazmi iron group was significant compared to that in other groups (P < 0.005).Hardness reduction percent for Kharazmi iron drop was 28/12 ± 47/43.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Iron and multivitamin drops are being frequently prescribed in children less than 2 years of age. Due to their low pH levels, these drops may lead to the softening of enamel and accelerate the destructive process. The aim of the present study was to investigate the enamel microhardness of primary teeth after exposing them to iron and multivitamin drops.

Materials and methods: Forty healthy anterior teeth were randomly divided into four groups of 10 samples each. Samples were exposed to two iron drops of Kharazmi (Iran) and Ironorm (UK) and two multivitamin drops of Shahdarou (Iran) and Eurovit (Germany) for 5 min. The surface microhardness was measured before and after exposure and data processing was done using statistical paired t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. The surface structure of the teeth was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM).

Results: In all groups, microhardness was decreased, but it was not significant in Eurovit multivitamin group (P = 0.088). The reduction rate in Kharazmi iron group was significant compared to that in other groups (P < 0.005). Hardness reduction percent for Kharazmi iron drop was 28/12 ± 47/43. In SEM analysis, irregular granular appearance was observed in the enamel exposed to Kharazmi iron drop.

Conclusion: The results showed that all the studied drugs have the potential to cause erosion; this potential is the most in Kharazmi iron drop and the least in Eurovit multivitamin drops. Therefore, after using these kinds of drops, preventive measures should be used in children.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus