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Bees as Biosensors: Chemosensory Ability, Honey Bee Monitoring Systems, and Emergent Sensor Technologies Derived from the Pollinator Syndrome.

Bromenshenk JJ, Henderson CB, Seccomb RA, Welch PM, Debnam SE, Firth DR - Biosensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: Observations of bee odor search behavior extend back to Aristotle.In the past two decades great strides have been made in methods and instrumentation for the study and exploitation of bee search behavior and for examining intra-organismal chemical communication signals.In particular, bees can be trained to search for and localize sources for a variety of chemicals, which when coupled with emerging tracking and mapping technologies create novel potential for research, as well as bee and crop management.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Bee Alert Technology, Inc., 91 Campus Drive, PMB# 2604, Missoula, MT 59801, USA. beeresearch@aol.com.

ABSTRACT
This review focuses on critical milestones in the development path for the use of bees, mainly honey bees and bumble bees, as sentinels and biosensors. These keystone species comprise the most abundant pollinators of agro-ecosystems. Pollinating 70%-80% of flowering terrestrial plants, bees and other insects propel the reproduction and survival of plants and themselves, as well as improve the quantity and quality of seeds, nuts, and fruits that feed birds, wildlife, and us. Flowers provide insects with energy, nutrients, and shelter, while pollinators are essential to global ecosystem productivity and stability. A rich and diverse milieu of chemical signals establishes and maintains this intimate partnership. Observations of bee odor search behavior extend back to Aristotle. In the past two decades great strides have been made in methods and instrumentation for the study and exploitation of bee search behavior and for examining intra-organismal chemical communication signals. In particular, bees can be trained to search for and localize sources for a variety of chemicals, which when coupled with emerging tracking and mapping technologies create novel potential for research, as well as bee and crop management.

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(a) Extreme high resolution (307,200 radiometric pixels) image of two bee colonies with feeder on nearest hive; (b) Picture in picture, high resolution, (76,800 radiometric pixels); MSX technology fuses infrared and visible light images; (c) Moderate resolution (19,200 radiometric pixels); thermal image only of pallets of bee hives stacked in a wintering shed; (d) Moderate resolution (19,200 radiometric pixels) image of two queen cells removed from an incubator and left at room temperature for five minutes. Cell on left has stillborn queen; cell on right has live queen.
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biosensors-05-00678-f012: (a) Extreme high resolution (307,200 radiometric pixels) image of two bee colonies with feeder on nearest hive; (b) Picture in picture, high resolution, (76,800 radiometric pixels); MSX technology fuses infrared and visible light images; (c) Moderate resolution (19,200 radiometric pixels); thermal image only of pallets of bee hives stacked in a wintering shed; (d) Moderate resolution (19,200 radiometric pixels) image of two queen cells removed from an incubator and left at room temperature for five minutes. Cell on left has stillborn queen; cell on right has live queen.

Mentions: All objects and animals emit InfraRed (IR) radiation as a function of temperature. Kastberger and Stachel [100] (2003) provided a technical overview of IR measuring systems used with biological systems. They address, among other applications, the imaging of bees and wasps. In 2011, we and our collaborators from Montana State University (MSU) published an article on infrared imaging for non-invasive population assessments of honey bee colony populations in beehives [101]. Since then, we have been investigating other uses of IR cameras for bee management and experimenting with IR cameras of differing resolution capabilities (Figure 12a–d).


Bees as Biosensors: Chemosensory Ability, Honey Bee Monitoring Systems, and Emergent Sensor Technologies Derived from the Pollinator Syndrome.

Bromenshenk JJ, Henderson CB, Seccomb RA, Welch PM, Debnam SE, Firth DR - Biosensors (Basel) (2015)

(a) Extreme high resolution (307,200 radiometric pixels) image of two bee colonies with feeder on nearest hive; (b) Picture in picture, high resolution, (76,800 radiometric pixels); MSX technology fuses infrared and visible light images; (c) Moderate resolution (19,200 radiometric pixels); thermal image only of pallets of bee hives stacked in a wintering shed; (d) Moderate resolution (19,200 radiometric pixels) image of two queen cells removed from an incubator and left at room temperature for five minutes. Cell on left has stillborn queen; cell on right has live queen.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4697140&req=5

biosensors-05-00678-f012: (a) Extreme high resolution (307,200 radiometric pixels) image of two bee colonies with feeder on nearest hive; (b) Picture in picture, high resolution, (76,800 radiometric pixels); MSX technology fuses infrared and visible light images; (c) Moderate resolution (19,200 radiometric pixels); thermal image only of pallets of bee hives stacked in a wintering shed; (d) Moderate resolution (19,200 radiometric pixels) image of two queen cells removed from an incubator and left at room temperature for five minutes. Cell on left has stillborn queen; cell on right has live queen.
Mentions: All objects and animals emit InfraRed (IR) radiation as a function of temperature. Kastberger and Stachel [100] (2003) provided a technical overview of IR measuring systems used with biological systems. They address, among other applications, the imaging of bees and wasps. In 2011, we and our collaborators from Montana State University (MSU) published an article on infrared imaging for non-invasive population assessments of honey bee colony populations in beehives [101]. Since then, we have been investigating other uses of IR cameras for bee management and experimenting with IR cameras of differing resolution capabilities (Figure 12a–d).

Bottom Line: Observations of bee odor search behavior extend back to Aristotle.In the past two decades great strides have been made in methods and instrumentation for the study and exploitation of bee search behavior and for examining intra-organismal chemical communication signals.In particular, bees can be trained to search for and localize sources for a variety of chemicals, which when coupled with emerging tracking and mapping technologies create novel potential for research, as well as bee and crop management.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Bee Alert Technology, Inc., 91 Campus Drive, PMB# 2604, Missoula, MT 59801, USA. beeresearch@aol.com.

ABSTRACT
This review focuses on critical milestones in the development path for the use of bees, mainly honey bees and bumble bees, as sentinels and biosensors. These keystone species comprise the most abundant pollinators of agro-ecosystems. Pollinating 70%-80% of flowering terrestrial plants, bees and other insects propel the reproduction and survival of plants and themselves, as well as improve the quantity and quality of seeds, nuts, and fruits that feed birds, wildlife, and us. Flowers provide insects with energy, nutrients, and shelter, while pollinators are essential to global ecosystem productivity and stability. A rich and diverse milieu of chemical signals establishes and maintains this intimate partnership. Observations of bee odor search behavior extend back to Aristotle. In the past two decades great strides have been made in methods and instrumentation for the study and exploitation of bee search behavior and for examining intra-organismal chemical communication signals. In particular, bees can be trained to search for and localize sources for a variety of chemicals, which when coupled with emerging tracking and mapping technologies create novel potential for research, as well as bee and crop management.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus