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Health in National Climate Change Adaptation Planning.

Ebi KL, Prats EV - Ann Glob Health (2015 May-Jun)

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Electronic address: krisebi@uw.edu.

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Building on the experience gained through the NAPA process, including implementation of adaptation options to address urgent national needs, National Adaptation Plans (NAPs) are under development by LDCs and other developing countries to identify and address medium and long-term adaptation needs... The UNFCCC Least Developed Country Expert Group (LEG) was mandated to develop technical guidelines to support the NAP process... The agreed objectives of the NAP process are to (1) reduce vulnerability to current effects and future climate change-related risks, and (2) facilitate the mainstreaming of climate change adaptation into development planning and other strategies within all relevant sectors and at local to national scales of governance... The elements of the H-NAP process are as follows: (1) laying the groundwork; (2) preparatory elements; (3) implementation strategies; and (4) reporting, monitoring, and reviewing (Fig.  1)... An objective of the H-NAP process is to strengthen national systems for monitoring and evaluating the burden of climate-sensitive health outcomes and to align those systems with international reporting... Guidance on what needs to be included in a national health information system should be developed during the H-NAP process, taking into consideration the priority health outcomes of concern over the coming decades, the human and financial resources needed to augment surveillance programs, whether additional capacity needs to be built within the ministry of health and other organizations for monitoring and evaluation of climate-sensitive health risks, and the recommended indicators for monitoring the process of adaptation and the effectiveness of the products of specific adaptation programs (eg, early warning systems)... Other variables to consider when developing indicators depend on the health outcome of interest; for example, socioeconomic variables where income distribution is important or the prevalence of chronic diseases... Trends in factors that increase or decrease vulnerability and exposure to the hazards associated with changing weather patterns and sea level rise, such as urbanization, access to improved water sources, and social capital... Although monitoring and evaluation of the effectiveness of adaptation options are well established in health systems, current approaches were not designed for issues such as climate change where, for example, the magnitude of the “exposure” to weather and climate events cannot be reduced until at least mid-century; where local socioeconomic and environmental conditions are key determinants of the magnitude and pattern of risks; and where upstream drivers mainly arise from sectors outside health... Scaling out adaptation options to other regions will be easier and more effective when there is a more complete understanding of the process of adaptation... Having an adaptation strategy does not guarantee that it is implemented, and implementing a strategy may not be as effective as possible without including other sectors and nonstate actors... However, climate variability and change bring new dimensions that will require training and capacity building to mainstream climate change concerns into health system strategies, policies, and programs and into research and development... Focusing on strengthening health protection systems for climate-sensitive health outcomes is important, including increasing access to vaccination, safe water, and improved sanitation... Mitigation is equally as important as adaptation; rapid and substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emissions are required to reduce risks past mid-century... But even with substantial reductions and with significant investments in adaptation, climate-sensitive health risks in excess of what countries will be able to manage will be a feature of coming decades.

No MeSH data available.


Elements and steps in conducting the health component of a national adaptation plan (H-NAP). (Based on WHO 2014.)
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fig1: Elements and steps in conducting the health component of a national adaptation plan (H-NAP). (Based on WHO 2014.)

Mentions: The elements of the H-NAP process are as follows: (1) laying the groundwork; (2) preparatory elements; (3) implementation strategies; and (4) reporting, monitoring, and reviewing (Fig. 1). These are broadly related to the phases of a project cycle (identification, formulation, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation). The WHO guidance provides a brief description of elements and steps, along with links to materials and tools to help support the process, and some examples from health adaptation projects.2


Health in National Climate Change Adaptation Planning.

Ebi KL, Prats EV - Ann Glob Health (2015 May-Jun)

Elements and steps in conducting the health component of a national adaptation plan (H-NAP). (Based on WHO 2014.)
© Copyright Policy - CC BY
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4697129&req=5

fig1: Elements and steps in conducting the health component of a national adaptation plan (H-NAP). (Based on WHO 2014.)
Mentions: The elements of the H-NAP process are as follows: (1) laying the groundwork; (2) preparatory elements; (3) implementation strategies; and (4) reporting, monitoring, and reviewing (Fig. 1). These are broadly related to the phases of a project cycle (identification, formulation, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation). The WHO guidance provides a brief description of elements and steps, along with links to materials and tools to help support the process, and some examples from health adaptation projects.2

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Electronic address: krisebi@uw.edu.

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

Building on the experience gained through the NAPA process, including implementation of adaptation options to address urgent national needs, National Adaptation Plans (NAPs) are under development by LDCs and other developing countries to identify and address medium and long-term adaptation needs... The UNFCCC Least Developed Country Expert Group (LEG) was mandated to develop technical guidelines to support the NAP process... The agreed objectives of the NAP process are to (1) reduce vulnerability to current effects and future climate change-related risks, and (2) facilitate the mainstreaming of climate change adaptation into development planning and other strategies within all relevant sectors and at local to national scales of governance... The elements of the H-NAP process are as follows: (1) laying the groundwork; (2) preparatory elements; (3) implementation strategies; and (4) reporting, monitoring, and reviewing (Fig.  1)... An objective of the H-NAP process is to strengthen national systems for monitoring and evaluating the burden of climate-sensitive health outcomes and to align those systems with international reporting... Guidance on what needs to be included in a national health information system should be developed during the H-NAP process, taking into consideration the priority health outcomes of concern over the coming decades, the human and financial resources needed to augment surveillance programs, whether additional capacity needs to be built within the ministry of health and other organizations for monitoring and evaluation of climate-sensitive health risks, and the recommended indicators for monitoring the process of adaptation and the effectiveness of the products of specific adaptation programs (eg, early warning systems)... Other variables to consider when developing indicators depend on the health outcome of interest; for example, socioeconomic variables where income distribution is important or the prevalence of chronic diseases... Trends in factors that increase or decrease vulnerability and exposure to the hazards associated with changing weather patterns and sea level rise, such as urbanization, access to improved water sources, and social capital... Although monitoring and evaluation of the effectiveness of adaptation options are well established in health systems, current approaches were not designed for issues such as climate change where, for example, the magnitude of the “exposure” to weather and climate events cannot be reduced until at least mid-century; where local socioeconomic and environmental conditions are key determinants of the magnitude and pattern of risks; and where upstream drivers mainly arise from sectors outside health... Scaling out adaptation options to other regions will be easier and more effective when there is a more complete understanding of the process of adaptation... Having an adaptation strategy does not guarantee that it is implemented, and implementing a strategy may not be as effective as possible without including other sectors and nonstate actors... However, climate variability and change bring new dimensions that will require training and capacity building to mainstream climate change concerns into health system strategies, policies, and programs and into research and development... Focusing on strengthening health protection systems for climate-sensitive health outcomes is important, including increasing access to vaccination, safe water, and improved sanitation... Mitigation is equally as important as adaptation; rapid and substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emissions are required to reduce risks past mid-century... But even with substantial reductions and with significant investments in adaptation, climate-sensitive health risks in excess of what countries will be able to manage will be a feature of coming decades.

No MeSH data available.