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Kainic Acid-Induced Excitotoxicity Experimental Model: Protective Merits of Natural Products and Plant Extracts.

Mohd Sairazi NS, Sirajudeen KN, Asari MA, Muzaimi M, Mummedy S, Sulaiman SA - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2015)

Bottom Line: They provide significant reduction and/or protection against the development and progression of acute and chronic neurodegeneration.Thus, targeting of multiple pathways simultaneously may be the strategy to maximize the neuroprotection effect.This review summarizes the mechanisms involved in KA-induced excitotoxicity and attempts to collate the various researches related to the protective effect of natural products and plant extracts in the KA model of neurodegeneration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemical Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, Kubang Kerian, 16150 Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Excitotoxicity is well recognized as a major pathological process of neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases involving the central nervous system (CNS). In the animal models of neurodegeneration, excitotoxicity is commonly induced experimentally by chemical convulsants, particularly kainic acid (KA). KA-induced excitotoxicity in rodent models has been shown to result in seizures, behavioral changes, oxidative stress, glial activation, inflammatory mediator production, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and selective neurodegeneration in the brain upon KA administration. Recently, there is an emerging trend to search for natural sources to combat against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Natural products and plant extracts had attracted a considerable amount of attention because of their reported beneficial effects on the CNS, particularly their neuroprotective effect against excitotoxicity. They provide significant reduction and/or protection against the development and progression of acute and chronic neurodegeneration. This indicates that natural products and plants extracts may be useful in protecting against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegeneration. Thus, targeting of multiple pathways simultaneously may be the strategy to maximize the neuroprotection effect. This review summarizes the mechanisms involved in KA-induced excitotoxicity and attempts to collate the various researches related to the protective effect of natural products and plant extracts in the KA model of neurodegeneration.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Illustrations of proposed mechanism of preventive and therapeutic treatment approaches in neurodegeneration.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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fig2: Illustrations of proposed mechanism of preventive and therapeutic treatment approaches in neurodegeneration.

Mentions: Other potential approaches for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases are to improve the function of mitochondria and ER to inhibit the ER stress and apoptosis. A short summary and illustration of the proposed mechanism of action for the preventive and therapeutic strategies for neurodegenerative diseases are presented in Table 1 and Figure 2. Combination of multiple agents that target multiple pathways may result in synergistic effects to bring additive neuroprotective effect.


Kainic Acid-Induced Excitotoxicity Experimental Model: Protective Merits of Natural Products and Plant Extracts.

Mohd Sairazi NS, Sirajudeen KN, Asari MA, Muzaimi M, Mummedy S, Sulaiman SA - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2015)

Illustrations of proposed mechanism of preventive and therapeutic treatment approaches in neurodegeneration.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4697086&req=5

fig2: Illustrations of proposed mechanism of preventive and therapeutic treatment approaches in neurodegeneration.
Mentions: Other potential approaches for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases are to improve the function of mitochondria and ER to inhibit the ER stress and apoptosis. A short summary and illustration of the proposed mechanism of action for the preventive and therapeutic strategies for neurodegenerative diseases are presented in Table 1 and Figure 2. Combination of multiple agents that target multiple pathways may result in synergistic effects to bring additive neuroprotective effect.

Bottom Line: They provide significant reduction and/or protection against the development and progression of acute and chronic neurodegeneration.Thus, targeting of multiple pathways simultaneously may be the strategy to maximize the neuroprotection effect.This review summarizes the mechanisms involved in KA-induced excitotoxicity and attempts to collate the various researches related to the protective effect of natural products and plant extracts in the KA model of neurodegeneration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemical Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, Kubang Kerian, 16150 Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Excitotoxicity is well recognized as a major pathological process of neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases involving the central nervous system (CNS). In the animal models of neurodegeneration, excitotoxicity is commonly induced experimentally by chemical convulsants, particularly kainic acid (KA). KA-induced excitotoxicity in rodent models has been shown to result in seizures, behavioral changes, oxidative stress, glial activation, inflammatory mediator production, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and selective neurodegeneration in the brain upon KA administration. Recently, there is an emerging trend to search for natural sources to combat against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Natural products and plant extracts had attracted a considerable amount of attention because of their reported beneficial effects on the CNS, particularly their neuroprotective effect against excitotoxicity. They provide significant reduction and/or protection against the development and progression of acute and chronic neurodegeneration. This indicates that natural products and plants extracts may be useful in protecting against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegeneration. Thus, targeting of multiple pathways simultaneously may be the strategy to maximize the neuroprotection effect. This review summarizes the mechanisms involved in KA-induced excitotoxicity and attempts to collate the various researches related to the protective effect of natural products and plant extracts in the KA model of neurodegeneration.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus