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The influence of hypoxic physical activity on cfDNA as a new marker of vascular inflammation.

Pokrywka A, Zembron-Lacny A, Baldy-Chudzik K, Orysiak J, Sitkowski D, Banach M - Arch Med Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: Increases of cfDNA are described to be a potential hallmark for the overtraining syndrome, and might be related to aseptic vascular inflammation in athletes.Yet, the relevance of systemic inflammation and cfDNA with endothelial dysfunction in athletes still remains unclear.In this review article, we provide a current overview of exercise-induced cfDNA release to the circulation with special emphasis on its relationship with apoptosis and NETosis and the effect of hypoxic physical activity on vascular inflammation in athletes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Applied and Clinical Physiology, University of Zielona Gora, Zielona Gora, Poland.

ABSTRACT
The phenomenon of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is important for many biomedical disciplines including the field of exercise biochemistry and physiology. It is likely that cfDNA is released into the plasma by apoptosis of endothelial cells and circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), and/or by NETosis of immune cells induced by strenuous exercise. Increases of cfDNA are described to be a potential hallmark for the overtraining syndrome, and might be related to aseptic vascular inflammation in athletes. Yet, the relevance of systemic inflammation and cfDNA with endothelial dysfunction in athletes still remains unclear. In this review article, we provide a current overview of exercise-induced cfDNA release to the circulation with special emphasis on its relationship with apoptosis and NETosis and the effect of hypoxic physical activity on vascular inflammation in athletes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic representation and differences between apoptosis, necrosis and NETosiscfDNA – Circulating cell free DNA, cfRNA – circulating cell free RNA, AGO – Argonaute protein, MPO – myeloperoxidase, NE – neutrophil elastase, RONS – reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, miRNAs – short noncoding RNAs (19–25 nucleotides) that modulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level and play important roles in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes [62, 77, 78]
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Figure 0001: Schematic representation and differences between apoptosis, necrosis and NETosiscfDNA – Circulating cell free DNA, cfRNA – circulating cell free RNA, AGO – Argonaute protein, MPO – myeloperoxidase, NE – neutrophil elastase, RONS – reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, miRNAs – short noncoding RNAs (19–25 nucleotides) that modulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level and play important roles in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes [62, 77, 78]

Mentions: Neutrophil extracellular traps are the results of a unique form of cell death that morphologically is characterized by the loss of intracellular membranes before the integrity of the plasma membrane is compromised. To release NETs, activated neutrophils undergo dramatic morphological changes. Minutes after activation, they flatten and firmly attach to the substratum. During the next hour, the nucleus loses its lobules, the chromatin decondenses, and the inner and outer nuclear membranes progressively detach from each other. Concomitantly, the granules disintegrate. After 1 h, the nuclear envelope disaggregates into vesicles and the nucleoplasm and cytoplasm form a homogeneous mass. Finally, the cells round up and seem to contract until the cell membrane ruptures and the interior of the cell is ejected into the extracellular space, forming NETs. Notably, despite the intermixing of cellular compartments, during the last phase of NETosis, < 30 proteins are present in NETs. Most of them originate from granules, a few are from the nucleus, and cytoplasmic NET components are rare. NETosis is morphologically quite different from apoptosis and necrosis (Figure 1) [62, 70, 77, 78].


The influence of hypoxic physical activity on cfDNA as a new marker of vascular inflammation.

Pokrywka A, Zembron-Lacny A, Baldy-Chudzik K, Orysiak J, Sitkowski D, Banach M - Arch Med Sci (2015)

Schematic representation and differences between apoptosis, necrosis and NETosiscfDNA – Circulating cell free DNA, cfRNA – circulating cell free RNA, AGO – Argonaute protein, MPO – myeloperoxidase, NE – neutrophil elastase, RONS – reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, miRNAs – short noncoding RNAs (19–25 nucleotides) that modulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level and play important roles in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes [62, 77, 78]
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4697049&req=5

Figure 0001: Schematic representation and differences between apoptosis, necrosis and NETosiscfDNA – Circulating cell free DNA, cfRNA – circulating cell free RNA, AGO – Argonaute protein, MPO – myeloperoxidase, NE – neutrophil elastase, RONS – reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, miRNAs – short noncoding RNAs (19–25 nucleotides) that modulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level and play important roles in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes [62, 77, 78]
Mentions: Neutrophil extracellular traps are the results of a unique form of cell death that morphologically is characterized by the loss of intracellular membranes before the integrity of the plasma membrane is compromised. To release NETs, activated neutrophils undergo dramatic morphological changes. Minutes after activation, they flatten and firmly attach to the substratum. During the next hour, the nucleus loses its lobules, the chromatin decondenses, and the inner and outer nuclear membranes progressively detach from each other. Concomitantly, the granules disintegrate. After 1 h, the nuclear envelope disaggregates into vesicles and the nucleoplasm and cytoplasm form a homogeneous mass. Finally, the cells round up and seem to contract until the cell membrane ruptures and the interior of the cell is ejected into the extracellular space, forming NETs. Notably, despite the intermixing of cellular compartments, during the last phase of NETosis, < 30 proteins are present in NETs. Most of them originate from granules, a few are from the nucleus, and cytoplasmic NET components are rare. NETosis is morphologically quite different from apoptosis and necrosis (Figure 1) [62, 70, 77, 78].

Bottom Line: Increases of cfDNA are described to be a potential hallmark for the overtraining syndrome, and might be related to aseptic vascular inflammation in athletes.Yet, the relevance of systemic inflammation and cfDNA with endothelial dysfunction in athletes still remains unclear.In this review article, we provide a current overview of exercise-induced cfDNA release to the circulation with special emphasis on its relationship with apoptosis and NETosis and the effect of hypoxic physical activity on vascular inflammation in athletes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Applied and Clinical Physiology, University of Zielona Gora, Zielona Gora, Poland.

ABSTRACT
The phenomenon of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is important for many biomedical disciplines including the field of exercise biochemistry and physiology. It is likely that cfDNA is released into the plasma by apoptosis of endothelial cells and circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), and/or by NETosis of immune cells induced by strenuous exercise. Increases of cfDNA are described to be a potential hallmark for the overtraining syndrome, and might be related to aseptic vascular inflammation in athletes. Yet, the relevance of systemic inflammation and cfDNA with endothelial dysfunction in athletes still remains unclear. In this review article, we provide a current overview of exercise-induced cfDNA release to the circulation with special emphasis on its relationship with apoptosis and NETosis and the effect of hypoxic physical activity on vascular inflammation in athletes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus