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Sex Differences in Emotional Evaluation of Film Clips: Interaction with Five High Arousal Emotional Categories.

Maffei A, Vencato V, Angrilli A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Analysis of positive films revealed higher levels of arousal, pleasantness, and excitation to the Scenery clips in both genders, but lower pleasantness and greater embarrassment in women compared to men to Erotic clips.Concerning unpleasant stimuli, unlike men, women reported more unpleasantness to the Compassion, Sadness, and Fear compared to the Neutral clips and rated them also as more arousing than did men.Correlation analysis between arousal and the other emotional scales revealed that, although men looked less aroused than women to all unpleasant clips, they also showed a larger variance in their emotional responses as indicated by the high number of correlations and their relatively greater extent, an outcome pointing to a masked larger sensitivity of part of male sample to emotional clips.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

ABSTRACT
The present study aimed to investigate gender differences in the emotional evaluation of 18 film clips divided into six categories: Erotic, Scenery, Neutral, Sadness, Compassion, and Fear. 41 female and 40 male students rated all clips for valence-pleasantness, arousal, level of elicited distress, anxiety, jittery feelings, excitation, and embarrassment. Analysis of positive films revealed higher levels of arousal, pleasantness, and excitation to the Scenery clips in both genders, but lower pleasantness and greater embarrassment in women compared to men to Erotic clips. Concerning unpleasant stimuli, unlike men, women reported more unpleasantness to the Compassion, Sadness, and Fear compared to the Neutral clips and rated them also as more arousing than did men. They further differentiated the films by perceiving greater arousal to Fear than to Compassion clips. Women rated the Sadness and Fear clips with greater Distress and Jittery feelings than men did. Correlation analysis between arousal and the other emotional scales revealed that, although men looked less aroused than women to all unpleasant clips, they also showed a larger variance in their emotional responses as indicated by the high number of correlations and their relatively greater extent, an outcome pointing to a masked larger sensitivity of part of male sample to emotional clips. We propose a new perspective in which gender difference in emotional responses can be better evidenced by means of film clips selected and clustered in more homogeneous categories, controlled for arousal levels, as well as evaluated through a number of emotion focused adjectives.

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Ratings of emotional adjectives in response to the six emotional categories measured on a 1–5 analogue scale in the two genders.Panel A shows the ratings of self-perceived Distress level. Panel B shows the self-perceived Anxiety level. Panel C shows the ratings of Agitation-Jittery. Panel D shows the level of Excitement elicited by the clips. Panel E shows the self-evaluation of the Embarrassment level. Asterisks indicate * p<0.05 and ** p< 0.01. Red: within-females post-hoc comparisons. Blue: within-males post-hoc comparisons. Black: between-groups (or common within-group effects for Excited) post-hoc comparisons.
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pone.0145562.g002: Ratings of emotional adjectives in response to the six emotional categories measured on a 1–5 analogue scale in the two genders.Panel A shows the ratings of self-perceived Distress level. Panel B shows the self-perceived Anxiety level. Panel C shows the ratings of Agitation-Jittery. Panel D shows the level of Excitement elicited by the clips. Panel E shows the self-evaluation of the Embarrassment level. Asterisks indicate * p<0.05 and ** p< 0.01. Red: within-females post-hoc comparisons. Blue: within-males post-hoc comparisons. Black: between-groups (or common within-group effects for Excited) post-hoc comparisons.

Mentions: Each film clip was rated by participants according to five adjectives on a 1–5 scale (Fig 2). The most interesting results for the present study concerned the interaction between Gender and Emotional Condition. Significant interactions were found for the Distress, Anxious, and Jittery adjectives (respectively, F5,395 = 4.75, p<0.01, F5,395 = 5.88, p<0.01, and F5,395 = 5.28, p<0.01). This highlights the fact that women reported larger scores compared to men for the Fear clips (all p<0.01; Fig 2A, 2B and 2C). In addition, both genders showed significantly higher rates in all three adjectives to the Fear clips compared to other Emotional categories (all p<0.01). Also, the Sadness clips elicited higher Distress and Jittery in women compared to men (post-hoc p<0.05).


Sex Differences in Emotional Evaluation of Film Clips: Interaction with Five High Arousal Emotional Categories.

Maffei A, Vencato V, Angrilli A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Ratings of emotional adjectives in response to the six emotional categories measured on a 1–5 analogue scale in the two genders.Panel A shows the ratings of self-perceived Distress level. Panel B shows the self-perceived Anxiety level. Panel C shows the ratings of Agitation-Jittery. Panel D shows the level of Excitement elicited by the clips. Panel E shows the self-evaluation of the Embarrassment level. Asterisks indicate * p<0.05 and ** p< 0.01. Red: within-females post-hoc comparisons. Blue: within-males post-hoc comparisons. Black: between-groups (or common within-group effects for Excited) post-hoc comparisons.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4696842&req=5

pone.0145562.g002: Ratings of emotional adjectives in response to the six emotional categories measured on a 1–5 analogue scale in the two genders.Panel A shows the ratings of self-perceived Distress level. Panel B shows the self-perceived Anxiety level. Panel C shows the ratings of Agitation-Jittery. Panel D shows the level of Excitement elicited by the clips. Panel E shows the self-evaluation of the Embarrassment level. Asterisks indicate * p<0.05 and ** p< 0.01. Red: within-females post-hoc comparisons. Blue: within-males post-hoc comparisons. Black: between-groups (or common within-group effects for Excited) post-hoc comparisons.
Mentions: Each film clip was rated by participants according to five adjectives on a 1–5 scale (Fig 2). The most interesting results for the present study concerned the interaction between Gender and Emotional Condition. Significant interactions were found for the Distress, Anxious, and Jittery adjectives (respectively, F5,395 = 4.75, p<0.01, F5,395 = 5.88, p<0.01, and F5,395 = 5.28, p<0.01). This highlights the fact that women reported larger scores compared to men for the Fear clips (all p<0.01; Fig 2A, 2B and 2C). In addition, both genders showed significantly higher rates in all three adjectives to the Fear clips compared to other Emotional categories (all p<0.01). Also, the Sadness clips elicited higher Distress and Jittery in women compared to men (post-hoc p<0.05).

Bottom Line: Analysis of positive films revealed higher levels of arousal, pleasantness, and excitation to the Scenery clips in both genders, but lower pleasantness and greater embarrassment in women compared to men to Erotic clips.Concerning unpleasant stimuli, unlike men, women reported more unpleasantness to the Compassion, Sadness, and Fear compared to the Neutral clips and rated them also as more arousing than did men.Correlation analysis between arousal and the other emotional scales revealed that, although men looked less aroused than women to all unpleasant clips, they also showed a larger variance in their emotional responses as indicated by the high number of correlations and their relatively greater extent, an outcome pointing to a masked larger sensitivity of part of male sample to emotional clips.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

ABSTRACT
The present study aimed to investigate gender differences in the emotional evaluation of 18 film clips divided into six categories: Erotic, Scenery, Neutral, Sadness, Compassion, and Fear. 41 female and 40 male students rated all clips for valence-pleasantness, arousal, level of elicited distress, anxiety, jittery feelings, excitation, and embarrassment. Analysis of positive films revealed higher levels of arousal, pleasantness, and excitation to the Scenery clips in both genders, but lower pleasantness and greater embarrassment in women compared to men to Erotic clips. Concerning unpleasant stimuli, unlike men, women reported more unpleasantness to the Compassion, Sadness, and Fear compared to the Neutral clips and rated them also as more arousing than did men. They further differentiated the films by perceiving greater arousal to Fear than to Compassion clips. Women rated the Sadness and Fear clips with greater Distress and Jittery feelings than men did. Correlation analysis between arousal and the other emotional scales revealed that, although men looked less aroused than women to all unpleasant clips, they also showed a larger variance in their emotional responses as indicated by the high number of correlations and their relatively greater extent, an outcome pointing to a masked larger sensitivity of part of male sample to emotional clips. We propose a new perspective in which gender difference in emotional responses can be better evidenced by means of film clips selected and clustered in more homogeneous categories, controlled for arousal levels, as well as evaluated through a number of emotion focused adjectives.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus