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The Cry1Ab Protein Has Minor Effects on the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Communities after Five Seasons of Continuous Bt Maize Cultivation.

Zeng H, Tan F, Shu Y, Zhang Y, Feng Y, Wang J - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The cultivation of genetically modified plants (GMP) has raised concerns regarding the plants' ecological safety.No significant differences were observed in the diversity of the AMF community between the roots, bulk soils and rhizospheric soils of the Bt and non-Bt maize cultivars.A clustering analysis based on the DNA sequence data suggested that the sample types (i.e., the samples from the roots, bulk soils or rhizospheric soils) might have greater influence on the AMF community phylotypes than the maize cultivars.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecology, College of Agriculture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China.

ABSTRACT
The cultivation of genetically modified plants (GMP) has raised concerns regarding the plants' ecological safety. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the impact of five seasons of continuous Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) maize cultivation on the colonisation and community structure of the non-target organisms arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the maize roots, bulk soils and rhizospheric soils using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of the 28S ribosomal DNA and sequencing methods. AMF colonisation was significantly higher in the two Bt maize lines that express Cry1Ab, 5422Bt1 (event Bt11) and 5422CBCL (MON810) than in the non-Bt isoline 5422. No significant differences were observed in the diversity of the AMF community between the roots, bulk soils and rhizospheric soils of the Bt and non-Bt maize cultivars. The AMF genus Glomus was dominant in most of the samples, as detected by DNA sequencing. A clustering analysis based on the DNA sequence data suggested that the sample types (i.e., the samples from the roots, bulk soils or rhizospheric soils) might have greater influence on the AMF community phylotypes than the maize cultivars. This study indicated that the Cry1Ab protein has minor effects on the AMF communities after five seasons of continuous Bt maize cultivation.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Neighbour-joining (NJ) phylogenetic tree (linearized tree) showing the relationships between the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal phylotypes from the Bt and non-Bt maize that were inferred from the partial nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences of the 18S small subunit, internal transcribed spacer 1, the 5.8S ribosomal subunit, internal transcribed spacer 2, and the 28S ribosomal subunit.The bootstrap values above the branches are from the NJ analysis (1000 replicates). The scale bars indicate the average number of nucleotide substitutions per site. The sequence was also named according to the convention “maize variety-sample type-replicate number-the number generated in the cloning process (accession number)”.
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pone.0146041.g005: Neighbour-joining (NJ) phylogenetic tree (linearized tree) showing the relationships between the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal phylotypes from the Bt and non-Bt maize that were inferred from the partial nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences of the 18S small subunit, internal transcribed spacer 1, the 5.8S ribosomal subunit, internal transcribed spacer 2, and the 28S ribosomal subunit.The bootstrap values above the branches are from the NJ analysis (1000 replicates). The scale bars indicate the average number of nucleotide substitutions per site. The sequence was also named according to the convention “maize variety-sample type-replicate number-the number generated in the cloning process (accession number)”.

Mentions: The 64 identified OTUs were grouped into 30 discrete phylotypes (24 Glomus phylotypes, two Acaulospora phylotypes, and four Rhizophagus phylotypes) (Fig 5). No obvious clusters for the three varieties (5422, 5422CBCL and 5422Bt1) were revealed. The groups from most of the sequences generated from each sample type (roots, bulk soils or rhizospheric soils) were identified in the clustered tree. The bulk soil samples displayed two main phylotypes, Acaulospora 1 and Acaulospora 2. The maize roots were mainly colonised by 17 phylotypes (Glomus 3, Rhizophagus 1, Glomus 4, Glomus 5, Glomus 7, Glomus 8, Glomus 9, Glomus 10, Glomus 12, Glomus 13, Glomus 14, Glomus 15, Glomus 16, Glomus 17, Glomus 20, Glomus 21, and Glomus 22). Nine main phylotypes (Glomus 1, Glomus 2, Rhizophagus 2, Rhizophagus 4, Glomus 11, Glomus 18, Glomus 19, Glomus 23, and Glomus 24) were detected in the rhizospheric soils. Of these phylotypes, Glomus 5 was found in the roots of all three maize varieties.


The Cry1Ab Protein Has Minor Effects on the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Communities after Five Seasons of Continuous Bt Maize Cultivation.

Zeng H, Tan F, Shu Y, Zhang Y, Feng Y, Wang J - PLoS ONE (2015)

Neighbour-joining (NJ) phylogenetic tree (linearized tree) showing the relationships between the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal phylotypes from the Bt and non-Bt maize that were inferred from the partial nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences of the 18S small subunit, internal transcribed spacer 1, the 5.8S ribosomal subunit, internal transcribed spacer 2, and the 28S ribosomal subunit.The bootstrap values above the branches are from the NJ analysis (1000 replicates). The scale bars indicate the average number of nucleotide substitutions per site. The sequence was also named according to the convention “maize variety-sample type-replicate number-the number generated in the cloning process (accession number)”.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4696834&req=5

pone.0146041.g005: Neighbour-joining (NJ) phylogenetic tree (linearized tree) showing the relationships between the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal phylotypes from the Bt and non-Bt maize that were inferred from the partial nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences of the 18S small subunit, internal transcribed spacer 1, the 5.8S ribosomal subunit, internal transcribed spacer 2, and the 28S ribosomal subunit.The bootstrap values above the branches are from the NJ analysis (1000 replicates). The scale bars indicate the average number of nucleotide substitutions per site. The sequence was also named according to the convention “maize variety-sample type-replicate number-the number generated in the cloning process (accession number)”.
Mentions: The 64 identified OTUs were grouped into 30 discrete phylotypes (24 Glomus phylotypes, two Acaulospora phylotypes, and four Rhizophagus phylotypes) (Fig 5). No obvious clusters for the three varieties (5422, 5422CBCL and 5422Bt1) were revealed. The groups from most of the sequences generated from each sample type (roots, bulk soils or rhizospheric soils) were identified in the clustered tree. The bulk soil samples displayed two main phylotypes, Acaulospora 1 and Acaulospora 2. The maize roots were mainly colonised by 17 phylotypes (Glomus 3, Rhizophagus 1, Glomus 4, Glomus 5, Glomus 7, Glomus 8, Glomus 9, Glomus 10, Glomus 12, Glomus 13, Glomus 14, Glomus 15, Glomus 16, Glomus 17, Glomus 20, Glomus 21, and Glomus 22). Nine main phylotypes (Glomus 1, Glomus 2, Rhizophagus 2, Rhizophagus 4, Glomus 11, Glomus 18, Glomus 19, Glomus 23, and Glomus 24) were detected in the rhizospheric soils. Of these phylotypes, Glomus 5 was found in the roots of all three maize varieties.

Bottom Line: The cultivation of genetically modified plants (GMP) has raised concerns regarding the plants' ecological safety.No significant differences were observed in the diversity of the AMF community between the roots, bulk soils and rhizospheric soils of the Bt and non-Bt maize cultivars.A clustering analysis based on the DNA sequence data suggested that the sample types (i.e., the samples from the roots, bulk soils or rhizospheric soils) might have greater influence on the AMF community phylotypes than the maize cultivars.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecology, College of Agriculture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China.

ABSTRACT
The cultivation of genetically modified plants (GMP) has raised concerns regarding the plants' ecological safety. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the impact of five seasons of continuous Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) maize cultivation on the colonisation and community structure of the non-target organisms arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the maize roots, bulk soils and rhizospheric soils using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of the 28S ribosomal DNA and sequencing methods. AMF colonisation was significantly higher in the two Bt maize lines that express Cry1Ab, 5422Bt1 (event Bt11) and 5422CBCL (MON810) than in the non-Bt isoline 5422. No significant differences were observed in the diversity of the AMF community between the roots, bulk soils and rhizospheric soils of the Bt and non-Bt maize cultivars. The AMF genus Glomus was dominant in most of the samples, as detected by DNA sequencing. A clustering analysis based on the DNA sequence data suggested that the sample types (i.e., the samples from the roots, bulk soils or rhizospheric soils) might have greater influence on the AMF community phylotypes than the maize cultivars. This study indicated that the Cry1Ab protein has minor effects on the AMF communities after five seasons of continuous Bt maize cultivation.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus