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The Cry1Ab Protein Has Minor Effects on the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Communities after Five Seasons of Continuous Bt Maize Cultivation.

Zeng H, Tan F, Shu Y, Zhang Y, Feng Y, Wang J - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The cultivation of genetically modified plants (GMP) has raised concerns regarding the plants' ecological safety.No significant differences were observed in the diversity of the AMF community between the roots, bulk soils and rhizospheric soils of the Bt and non-Bt maize cultivars.A clustering analysis based on the DNA sequence data suggested that the sample types (i.e., the samples from the roots, bulk soils or rhizospheric soils) might have greater influence on the AMF community phylotypes than the maize cultivars.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecology, College of Agriculture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China.

ABSTRACT
The cultivation of genetically modified plants (GMP) has raised concerns regarding the plants' ecological safety. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the impact of five seasons of continuous Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) maize cultivation on the colonisation and community structure of the non-target organisms arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the maize roots, bulk soils and rhizospheric soils using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of the 28S ribosomal DNA and sequencing methods. AMF colonisation was significantly higher in the two Bt maize lines that express Cry1Ab, 5422Bt1 (event Bt11) and 5422CBCL (MON810) than in the non-Bt isoline 5422. No significant differences were observed in the diversity of the AMF community between the roots, bulk soils and rhizospheric soils of the Bt and non-Bt maize cultivars. The AMF genus Glomus was dominant in most of the samples, as detected by DNA sequencing. A clustering analysis based on the DNA sequence data suggested that the sample types (i.e., the samples from the roots, bulk soils or rhizospheric soils) might have greater influence on the AMF community phylotypes than the maize cultivars. This study indicated that the Cry1Ab protein has minor effects on the AMF communities after five seasons of continuous Bt maize cultivation.

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Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination plots of the AM fungal community structure, which is based on the TRFs for each enzyme, in the roots, rhizospheric soils, and bulk soils harvested at the fifth season.The filled square represents 5422, the circle represents 5422Bt1, and the triangle represents 5422CBCL. The key indicated the formula: sample type-restriction enzyme. A = bulk soils; B = rhizospheric soil; C = roots; 1 = MboI; and 2 = TaqI. The 95% confidence interval ellipses were not shown because the sample dot is too concentrated to distinguish if they were included (see S1 Fig to view the 95% confidence interval ellipses).
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pone.0146041.g002: Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination plots of the AM fungal community structure, which is based on the TRFs for each enzyme, in the roots, rhizospheric soils, and bulk soils harvested at the fifth season.The filled square represents 5422, the circle represents 5422Bt1, and the triangle represents 5422CBCL. The key indicated the formula: sample type-restriction enzyme. A = bulk soils; B = rhizospheric soil; C = roots; 1 = MboI; and 2 = TaqI. The 95% confidence interval ellipses were not shown because the sample dot is too concentrated to distinguish if they were included (see S1 Fig to view the 95% confidence interval ellipses).

Mentions: We also compared Bt and non-Bt maize community structure using non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (NMDS; Fig 2). The NMDS 95% confidence interval ellipses indicated there was no significant difference between the Bt and non-Bt maize (S1 Fig). The restriction-digested plots of the Bt and non-Bt maize NMDS were very similar, indicating that the distributions of the Bt and non-Bt maize were homogenous or overlapped. The result showed that after multiple seasons of cultivation, the AM fungal community structure in the Bt maize and non-Bt maize was not significantly different.


The Cry1Ab Protein Has Minor Effects on the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Communities after Five Seasons of Continuous Bt Maize Cultivation.

Zeng H, Tan F, Shu Y, Zhang Y, Feng Y, Wang J - PLoS ONE (2015)

Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination plots of the AM fungal community structure, which is based on the TRFs for each enzyme, in the roots, rhizospheric soils, and bulk soils harvested at the fifth season.The filled square represents 5422, the circle represents 5422Bt1, and the triangle represents 5422CBCL. The key indicated the formula: sample type-restriction enzyme. A = bulk soils; B = rhizospheric soil; C = roots; 1 = MboI; and 2 = TaqI. The 95% confidence interval ellipses were not shown because the sample dot is too concentrated to distinguish if they were included (see S1 Fig to view the 95% confidence interval ellipses).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4696834&req=5

pone.0146041.g002: Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination plots of the AM fungal community structure, which is based on the TRFs for each enzyme, in the roots, rhizospheric soils, and bulk soils harvested at the fifth season.The filled square represents 5422, the circle represents 5422Bt1, and the triangle represents 5422CBCL. The key indicated the formula: sample type-restriction enzyme. A = bulk soils; B = rhizospheric soil; C = roots; 1 = MboI; and 2 = TaqI. The 95% confidence interval ellipses were not shown because the sample dot is too concentrated to distinguish if they were included (see S1 Fig to view the 95% confidence interval ellipses).
Mentions: We also compared Bt and non-Bt maize community structure using non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (NMDS; Fig 2). The NMDS 95% confidence interval ellipses indicated there was no significant difference between the Bt and non-Bt maize (S1 Fig). The restriction-digested plots of the Bt and non-Bt maize NMDS were very similar, indicating that the distributions of the Bt and non-Bt maize were homogenous or overlapped. The result showed that after multiple seasons of cultivation, the AM fungal community structure in the Bt maize and non-Bt maize was not significantly different.

Bottom Line: The cultivation of genetically modified plants (GMP) has raised concerns regarding the plants' ecological safety.No significant differences were observed in the diversity of the AMF community between the roots, bulk soils and rhizospheric soils of the Bt and non-Bt maize cultivars.A clustering analysis based on the DNA sequence data suggested that the sample types (i.e., the samples from the roots, bulk soils or rhizospheric soils) might have greater influence on the AMF community phylotypes than the maize cultivars.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecology, College of Agriculture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China.

ABSTRACT
The cultivation of genetically modified plants (GMP) has raised concerns regarding the plants' ecological safety. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the impact of five seasons of continuous Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) maize cultivation on the colonisation and community structure of the non-target organisms arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the maize roots, bulk soils and rhizospheric soils using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of the 28S ribosomal DNA and sequencing methods. AMF colonisation was significantly higher in the two Bt maize lines that express Cry1Ab, 5422Bt1 (event Bt11) and 5422CBCL (MON810) than in the non-Bt isoline 5422. No significant differences were observed in the diversity of the AMF community between the roots, bulk soils and rhizospheric soils of the Bt and non-Bt maize cultivars. The AMF genus Glomus was dominant in most of the samples, as detected by DNA sequencing. A clustering analysis based on the DNA sequence data suggested that the sample types (i.e., the samples from the roots, bulk soils or rhizospheric soils) might have greater influence on the AMF community phylotypes than the maize cultivars. This study indicated that the Cry1Ab protein has minor effects on the AMF communities after five seasons of continuous Bt maize cultivation.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus