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Fibrolytic Bacteria Isolated from the Rumen of North American Moose (Alces alces) and Their Use as a Probiotic in Neonatal Lambs.

Ishaq SL, Kim CJ, Reis D, Wright AD - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Using Sanger sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, culturing techniques, and optical densities, isolates were identified and screened for biochemical properties important to plant carbohydrate degradation.It was hypothesized that regular administration of a probiotic to improve fibrolysis to neonate animals through weaning would increase the developing rumen bacterial diversity, increase animal production, and allow for long-term colonization of the probiotic species.This is likely due to the changing diet and bacterial populations in the developing rumen.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Fibrolytic bacteria were isolated from the rumen of North American moose (Alces alces), which eat a high-fiber diet of woody browse. It was hypothesized that fibrolytic bacteria isolated from the moose rumen could be used as probiotics to improve fiber degradation and animal production. Thirty-one isolates (Bacillus, n = 26; Paenibacillus, n = 1; and Staphylococcus, n = 4) were cultured from moose rumen digesta samples collected in Vermont. Using Sanger sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, culturing techniques, and optical densities, isolates were identified and screened for biochemical properties important to plant carbohydrate degradation. Five isolates were selected as candidates for use as a probiotic, which was administered daily to neonate lambs for 9 weeks. It was hypothesized that regular administration of a probiotic to improve fibrolysis to neonate animals through weaning would increase the developing rumen bacterial diversity, increase animal production, and allow for long-term colonization of the probiotic species. Neither weight gain nor wool quality was improved in lambs given a probiotic, however, dietary efficiency was increased as evidenced by the reduced feed intake (and rearing costs) without a loss to weight gain. Experimental lambs had a lower acetate to propionate ratio than control lambs, which was previously shown to indicate increased dietary efficiency. Fibrolytic bacteria made up the majority of sequences, mainly Prevotella, Butyrivibrio, and Ruminococcus. While protozoal densities increased over time and were stable, methanogen densities varied greatly in the first six months of life for lambs. This is likely due to the changing diet and bacterial populations in the developing rumen.

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Effect of bacterial probiotic on lamb rumen methanogen and protozoal density, by Real-time PCR.Significance (P < 0.05) is denoted with *, and error bars show standard error mean.
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pone.0144804.g008: Effect of bacterial probiotic on lamb rumen methanogen and protozoal density, by Real-time PCR.Significance (P < 0.05) is denoted with *, and error bars show standard error mean.

Mentions: Protozoal density in both control and experimental groups increased over time until it leveled off at approximately 2 x 103 rRNA copes/ml (Fig 8). The control group had statistically higher (P < 0.05) densities at weeks 8 and 23. Methanogen densities increased for the first month, then rapidly decreased at week 6. Levels peaked at week 8, at which point densities decreased to week 11, and then peaked again at week 15. While average density was higher in control lambs for most time points, due to the variability of densities within groups, this was not statistically significant. Overall, protozoal densities were visually positively correlated using linear regression with methanogen densities, though this trend was not statistically significant across all time points (R2 = 0.18). However, correlation was high in control lambs at week 1 (R2 = 0.88) and week 23 (R2 = 0.47), though in experimental lambs the highest was (R2 = 0.19) in week 8.


Fibrolytic Bacteria Isolated from the Rumen of North American Moose (Alces alces) and Their Use as a Probiotic in Neonatal Lambs.

Ishaq SL, Kim CJ, Reis D, Wright AD - PLoS ONE (2015)

Effect of bacterial probiotic on lamb rumen methanogen and protozoal density, by Real-time PCR.Significance (P < 0.05) is denoted with *, and error bars show standard error mean.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4696820&req=5

pone.0144804.g008: Effect of bacterial probiotic on lamb rumen methanogen and protozoal density, by Real-time PCR.Significance (P < 0.05) is denoted with *, and error bars show standard error mean.
Mentions: Protozoal density in both control and experimental groups increased over time until it leveled off at approximately 2 x 103 rRNA copes/ml (Fig 8). The control group had statistically higher (P < 0.05) densities at weeks 8 and 23. Methanogen densities increased for the first month, then rapidly decreased at week 6. Levels peaked at week 8, at which point densities decreased to week 11, and then peaked again at week 15. While average density was higher in control lambs for most time points, due to the variability of densities within groups, this was not statistically significant. Overall, protozoal densities were visually positively correlated using linear regression with methanogen densities, though this trend was not statistically significant across all time points (R2 = 0.18). However, correlation was high in control lambs at week 1 (R2 = 0.88) and week 23 (R2 = 0.47), though in experimental lambs the highest was (R2 = 0.19) in week 8.

Bottom Line: Using Sanger sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, culturing techniques, and optical densities, isolates were identified and screened for biochemical properties important to plant carbohydrate degradation.It was hypothesized that regular administration of a probiotic to improve fibrolysis to neonate animals through weaning would increase the developing rumen bacterial diversity, increase animal production, and allow for long-term colonization of the probiotic species.This is likely due to the changing diet and bacterial populations in the developing rumen.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Fibrolytic bacteria were isolated from the rumen of North American moose (Alces alces), which eat a high-fiber diet of woody browse. It was hypothesized that fibrolytic bacteria isolated from the moose rumen could be used as probiotics to improve fiber degradation and animal production. Thirty-one isolates (Bacillus, n = 26; Paenibacillus, n = 1; and Staphylococcus, n = 4) were cultured from moose rumen digesta samples collected in Vermont. Using Sanger sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, culturing techniques, and optical densities, isolates were identified and screened for biochemical properties important to plant carbohydrate degradation. Five isolates were selected as candidates for use as a probiotic, which was administered daily to neonate lambs for 9 weeks. It was hypothesized that regular administration of a probiotic to improve fibrolysis to neonate animals through weaning would increase the developing rumen bacterial diversity, increase animal production, and allow for long-term colonization of the probiotic species. Neither weight gain nor wool quality was improved in lambs given a probiotic, however, dietary efficiency was increased as evidenced by the reduced feed intake (and rearing costs) without a loss to weight gain. Experimental lambs had a lower acetate to propionate ratio than control lambs, which was previously shown to indicate increased dietary efficiency. Fibrolytic bacteria made up the majority of sequences, mainly Prevotella, Butyrivibrio, and Ruminococcus. While protozoal densities increased over time and were stable, methanogen densities varied greatly in the first six months of life for lambs. This is likely due to the changing diet and bacterial populations in the developing rumen.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus