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Fibrolytic Bacteria Isolated from the Rumen of North American Moose (Alces alces) and Their Use as a Probiotic in Neonatal Lambs.

Ishaq SL, Kim CJ, Reis D, Wright AD - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Using Sanger sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, culturing techniques, and optical densities, isolates were identified and screened for biochemical properties important to plant carbohydrate degradation.It was hypothesized that regular administration of a probiotic to improve fibrolysis to neonate animals through weaning would increase the developing rumen bacterial diversity, increase animal production, and allow for long-term colonization of the probiotic species.This is likely due to the changing diet and bacterial populations in the developing rumen.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Fibrolytic bacteria were isolated from the rumen of North American moose (Alces alces), which eat a high-fiber diet of woody browse. It was hypothesized that fibrolytic bacteria isolated from the moose rumen could be used as probiotics to improve fiber degradation and animal production. Thirty-one isolates (Bacillus, n = 26; Paenibacillus, n = 1; and Staphylococcus, n = 4) were cultured from moose rumen digesta samples collected in Vermont. Using Sanger sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, culturing techniques, and optical densities, isolates were identified and screened for biochemical properties important to plant carbohydrate degradation. Five isolates were selected as candidates for use as a probiotic, which was administered daily to neonate lambs for 9 weeks. It was hypothesized that regular administration of a probiotic to improve fibrolysis to neonate animals through weaning would increase the developing rumen bacterial diversity, increase animal production, and allow for long-term colonization of the probiotic species. Neither weight gain nor wool quality was improved in lambs given a probiotic, however, dietary efficiency was increased as evidenced by the reduced feed intake (and rearing costs) without a loss to weight gain. Experimental lambs had a lower acetate to propionate ratio than control lambs, which was previously shown to indicate increased dietary efficiency. Fibrolytic bacteria made up the majority of sequences, mainly Prevotella, Butyrivibrio, and Ruminococcus. While protozoal densities increased over time and were stable, methanogen densities varied greatly in the first six months of life for lambs. This is likely due to the changing diet and bacterial populations in the developing rumen.

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Effect of time and bacterial probiotic on the bacterial diversity at the family level of the lamb rumen over the first six months of life.X-axis labeled reflect treatment (Con = control, Exp = probiotic experimental), as well as sampling date.
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pone.0144804.g007: Effect of time and bacterial probiotic on the bacterial diversity at the family level of the lamb rumen over the first six months of life.X-axis labeled reflect treatment (Con = control, Exp = probiotic experimental), as well as sampling date.

Mentions: Major families identified are shown in Fig 7, with families belonging to Bacteroidetes as shades of blue and members of Firmicutes in shades of green. Prevotellaceae (mostly species Prevotella) was a prominent family in all time points and in both groups, but was significantly higher in the experimental group at week 2. Bacteria belonging to the family Lachnospiraceae were also prominent in all samples, although they were significantly higher in the control group at week 2. The experimental group had more Ruminococcaceae bacteria than the control group at weeks 2 and 6. There were also bacterial families that were prominent in only some time points, such as Bacteroidaceae, Streptococcaceae, and the candidate family p-2534-18B5 in week 2 and 6; the Coriobacteriaceae (mostly species Olsenella) in week 6, the candidate family S24-7 and Fibrobacteraceae in week 11, Veillonellaceae and the candidate Family XI of the class Bacilli (phylum Firmicutes) in week 23.


Fibrolytic Bacteria Isolated from the Rumen of North American Moose (Alces alces) and Their Use as a Probiotic in Neonatal Lambs.

Ishaq SL, Kim CJ, Reis D, Wright AD - PLoS ONE (2015)

Effect of time and bacterial probiotic on the bacterial diversity at the family level of the lamb rumen over the first six months of life.X-axis labeled reflect treatment (Con = control, Exp = probiotic experimental), as well as sampling date.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4696820&req=5

pone.0144804.g007: Effect of time and bacterial probiotic on the bacterial diversity at the family level of the lamb rumen over the first six months of life.X-axis labeled reflect treatment (Con = control, Exp = probiotic experimental), as well as sampling date.
Mentions: Major families identified are shown in Fig 7, with families belonging to Bacteroidetes as shades of blue and members of Firmicutes in shades of green. Prevotellaceae (mostly species Prevotella) was a prominent family in all time points and in both groups, but was significantly higher in the experimental group at week 2. Bacteria belonging to the family Lachnospiraceae were also prominent in all samples, although they were significantly higher in the control group at week 2. The experimental group had more Ruminococcaceae bacteria than the control group at weeks 2 and 6. There were also bacterial families that were prominent in only some time points, such as Bacteroidaceae, Streptococcaceae, and the candidate family p-2534-18B5 in week 2 and 6; the Coriobacteriaceae (mostly species Olsenella) in week 6, the candidate family S24-7 and Fibrobacteraceae in week 11, Veillonellaceae and the candidate Family XI of the class Bacilli (phylum Firmicutes) in week 23.

Bottom Line: Using Sanger sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, culturing techniques, and optical densities, isolates were identified and screened for biochemical properties important to plant carbohydrate degradation.It was hypothesized that regular administration of a probiotic to improve fibrolysis to neonate animals through weaning would increase the developing rumen bacterial diversity, increase animal production, and allow for long-term colonization of the probiotic species.This is likely due to the changing diet and bacterial populations in the developing rumen.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Fibrolytic bacteria were isolated from the rumen of North American moose (Alces alces), which eat a high-fiber diet of woody browse. It was hypothesized that fibrolytic bacteria isolated from the moose rumen could be used as probiotics to improve fiber degradation and animal production. Thirty-one isolates (Bacillus, n = 26; Paenibacillus, n = 1; and Staphylococcus, n = 4) were cultured from moose rumen digesta samples collected in Vermont. Using Sanger sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, culturing techniques, and optical densities, isolates were identified and screened for biochemical properties important to plant carbohydrate degradation. Five isolates were selected as candidates for use as a probiotic, which was administered daily to neonate lambs for 9 weeks. It was hypothesized that regular administration of a probiotic to improve fibrolysis to neonate animals through weaning would increase the developing rumen bacterial diversity, increase animal production, and allow for long-term colonization of the probiotic species. Neither weight gain nor wool quality was improved in lambs given a probiotic, however, dietary efficiency was increased as evidenced by the reduced feed intake (and rearing costs) without a loss to weight gain. Experimental lambs had a lower acetate to propionate ratio than control lambs, which was previously shown to indicate increased dietary efficiency. Fibrolytic bacteria made up the majority of sequences, mainly Prevotella, Butyrivibrio, and Ruminococcus. While protozoal densities increased over time and were stable, methanogen densities varied greatly in the first six months of life for lambs. This is likely due to the changing diet and bacterial populations in the developing rumen.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus