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Fibrolytic Bacteria Isolated from the Rumen of North American Moose (Alces alces) and Their Use as a Probiotic in Neonatal Lambs.

Ishaq SL, Kim CJ, Reis D, Wright AD - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Using Sanger sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, culturing techniques, and optical densities, isolates were identified and screened for biochemical properties important to plant carbohydrate degradation.It was hypothesized that regular administration of a probiotic to improve fibrolysis to neonate animals through weaning would increase the developing rumen bacterial diversity, increase animal production, and allow for long-term colonization of the probiotic species.This is likely due to the changing diet and bacterial populations in the developing rumen.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Fibrolytic bacteria were isolated from the rumen of North American moose (Alces alces), which eat a high-fiber diet of woody browse. It was hypothesized that fibrolytic bacteria isolated from the moose rumen could be used as probiotics to improve fiber degradation and animal production. Thirty-one isolates (Bacillus, n = 26; Paenibacillus, n = 1; and Staphylococcus, n = 4) were cultured from moose rumen digesta samples collected in Vermont. Using Sanger sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, culturing techniques, and optical densities, isolates were identified and screened for biochemical properties important to plant carbohydrate degradation. Five isolates were selected as candidates for use as a probiotic, which was administered daily to neonate lambs for 9 weeks. It was hypothesized that regular administration of a probiotic to improve fibrolysis to neonate animals through weaning would increase the developing rumen bacterial diversity, increase animal production, and allow for long-term colonization of the probiotic species. Neither weight gain nor wool quality was improved in lambs given a probiotic, however, dietary efficiency was increased as evidenced by the reduced feed intake (and rearing costs) without a loss to weight gain. Experimental lambs had a lower acetate to propionate ratio than control lambs, which was previously shown to indicate increased dietary efficiency. Fibrolytic bacteria made up the majority of sequences, mainly Prevotella, Butyrivibrio, and Ruminococcus. While protozoal densities increased over time and were stable, methanogen densities varied greatly in the first six months of life for lambs. This is likely due to the changing diet and bacterial populations in the developing rumen.

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Growth of fibrolytic bacterial isolates at various temperatures (A) and pHs (B), as measured by optical density at 600 nm.The “-” at 20C and 25C indicates all samples were at max absorbance and there was no distribution.
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pone.0144804.g002: Growth of fibrolytic bacterial isolates at various temperatures (A) and pHs (B), as measured by optical density at 600 nm.The “-” at 20C and 25C indicates all samples were at max absorbance and there was no distribution.

Mentions: All 31 isolates tolerated 4% NaCl (data not shown). Isolates (n = 16) were able to tolerate up to 10% salinity (Table 1), including B. firmus, B. flexus, some B. licheniformis, B. niabensis, P. woosongensis, and some S. saprophyticus. Isolates from all species grew to >0.5 absorbance between pH 4.0 (n = 27) and pH 10.0 (n = 27), and between 20°C (n = 28) and 55°C (n = 30) (Fig 2). The “-” at 20C and 25C indicates all samples were at max absorbance and there was no distribution. Twenty-nine isolates exhibited normal growth after heat shock, but two isolates (B. niabensis VTM4R58, and S. saprophyticus VTM2R99) exhibited no growth. All but one B. licheniformis isolate (VTM3R64) tolerated sodium azide and exhibited growth after 5 d.


Fibrolytic Bacteria Isolated from the Rumen of North American Moose (Alces alces) and Their Use as a Probiotic in Neonatal Lambs.

Ishaq SL, Kim CJ, Reis D, Wright AD - PLoS ONE (2015)

Growth of fibrolytic bacterial isolates at various temperatures (A) and pHs (B), as measured by optical density at 600 nm.The “-” at 20C and 25C indicates all samples were at max absorbance and there was no distribution.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4696820&req=5

pone.0144804.g002: Growth of fibrolytic bacterial isolates at various temperatures (A) and pHs (B), as measured by optical density at 600 nm.The “-” at 20C and 25C indicates all samples were at max absorbance and there was no distribution.
Mentions: All 31 isolates tolerated 4% NaCl (data not shown). Isolates (n = 16) were able to tolerate up to 10% salinity (Table 1), including B. firmus, B. flexus, some B. licheniformis, B. niabensis, P. woosongensis, and some S. saprophyticus. Isolates from all species grew to >0.5 absorbance between pH 4.0 (n = 27) and pH 10.0 (n = 27), and between 20°C (n = 28) and 55°C (n = 30) (Fig 2). The “-” at 20C and 25C indicates all samples were at max absorbance and there was no distribution. Twenty-nine isolates exhibited normal growth after heat shock, but two isolates (B. niabensis VTM4R58, and S. saprophyticus VTM2R99) exhibited no growth. All but one B. licheniformis isolate (VTM3R64) tolerated sodium azide and exhibited growth after 5 d.

Bottom Line: Using Sanger sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, culturing techniques, and optical densities, isolates were identified and screened for biochemical properties important to plant carbohydrate degradation.It was hypothesized that regular administration of a probiotic to improve fibrolysis to neonate animals through weaning would increase the developing rumen bacterial diversity, increase animal production, and allow for long-term colonization of the probiotic species.This is likely due to the changing diet and bacterial populations in the developing rumen.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Fibrolytic bacteria were isolated from the rumen of North American moose (Alces alces), which eat a high-fiber diet of woody browse. It was hypothesized that fibrolytic bacteria isolated from the moose rumen could be used as probiotics to improve fiber degradation and animal production. Thirty-one isolates (Bacillus, n = 26; Paenibacillus, n = 1; and Staphylococcus, n = 4) were cultured from moose rumen digesta samples collected in Vermont. Using Sanger sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, culturing techniques, and optical densities, isolates were identified and screened for biochemical properties important to plant carbohydrate degradation. Five isolates were selected as candidates for use as a probiotic, which was administered daily to neonate lambs for 9 weeks. It was hypothesized that regular administration of a probiotic to improve fibrolysis to neonate animals through weaning would increase the developing rumen bacterial diversity, increase animal production, and allow for long-term colonization of the probiotic species. Neither weight gain nor wool quality was improved in lambs given a probiotic, however, dietary efficiency was increased as evidenced by the reduced feed intake (and rearing costs) without a loss to weight gain. Experimental lambs had a lower acetate to propionate ratio than control lambs, which was previously shown to indicate increased dietary efficiency. Fibrolytic bacteria made up the majority of sequences, mainly Prevotella, Butyrivibrio, and Ruminococcus. While protozoal densities increased over time and were stable, methanogen densities varied greatly in the first six months of life for lambs. This is likely due to the changing diet and bacterial populations in the developing rumen.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus