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Spatio-Temporal Identification of Areas Suitable for West Nile Disease in the Mediterranean Basin and Central Europe.

Conte A, Candeloro L, Ippoliti C, Monaco F, De Massis F, Bruno R, Di Sabatino D, Danzetta ML, Benjelloun A, Belkadi B, El Harrak M, Declich S, Rizzo C, Hammami S, Ben Hassine T, Calistri P, Savini G - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Between May and July, the most suitable areas are located in Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and North Cyprus.Summer/Autumn months, particularly between August and October, characterize the suitability in Italy, France, Spain, the Balkan countries, Morocco, North Tunisia, the Mediterranean coast of Africa, and the Middle East.The persistence of suitable conditions in December is confined to the coastal areas of Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and Israel.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e del Molise 'G. Caporale', Teramo, Italy.

ABSTRACT
West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of the Flaviviridae family. Its spread in the Mediterranean basin and the Balkans poses a significant risk to human health and forces public health officials to constantly monitor the virus transmission to ensure prompt application of preventive measures. In this context, predictive tools indicating the areas and periods at major risk of WNV transmission are of paramount importance. Spatial analysis approaches, which use environmental and climatic variables to find suitable habitats for WNV spread, can enhance predictive techniques. Using the Mahalanobis Distance statistic, areas ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV transmission were identified in the Mediterranean basin and Central Europe. About 270 human and equine clinical cases notified in Italy, Greece, Portugal, Morocco, and Tunisia, between 2008 and 2012, have been considered. The environmental variables included in the model were altitude, slope, night time Land Surface Temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Enhanced Vegetation Index, and daily temperature range. Seasonality of mosquito population has been modelled and included in the analyses to produce monthly maps of suitable areas for West Nile Disease. Between May and July, the most suitable areas are located in Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and North Cyprus. Summer/Autumn months, particularly between August and October, characterize the suitability in Italy, France, Spain, the Balkan countries, Morocco, North Tunisia, the Mediterranean coast of Africa, and the Middle East. The persistence of suitable conditions in December is confined to the coastal areas of Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and Israel.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Study area: distribution of reported West Nile virus by country, region, and province since the 90s (light red polygons) and case locations included in the study between 2008–2012 (red points).
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pone.0146024.g001: Study area: distribution of reported West Nile virus by country, region, and province since the 90s (light red polygons) and case locations included in the study between 2008–2012 (red points).

Mentions: The study area was the Central Europe and the Mediterranean basin. It extended from 29.9° to 50°N and from 15.5° to 46.7°E and included 43 countries, 25 of which have experienced WNV in the recent decades. Autochthonous WND cases in horses (animals with clinical symptoms) and humans (West Nile neuroinvasive disease and West Nile fever syndromes) which occurred between 2008–2012 were included in the study. For each case, information about clinical signs onset date along with the address of infected patients or coordinates of the place where equine cases occurred were recorded into the database. A total of 274 case-locations were analysed (Fig 1). Horse cases revealed by serology only were not considered, due to the difficulty of tracing back the date of infection.


Spatio-Temporal Identification of Areas Suitable for West Nile Disease in the Mediterranean Basin and Central Europe.

Conte A, Candeloro L, Ippoliti C, Monaco F, De Massis F, Bruno R, Di Sabatino D, Danzetta ML, Benjelloun A, Belkadi B, El Harrak M, Declich S, Rizzo C, Hammami S, Ben Hassine T, Calistri P, Savini G - PLoS ONE (2015)

Study area: distribution of reported West Nile virus by country, region, and province since the 90s (light red polygons) and case locations included in the study between 2008–2012 (red points).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4696814&req=5

pone.0146024.g001: Study area: distribution of reported West Nile virus by country, region, and province since the 90s (light red polygons) and case locations included in the study between 2008–2012 (red points).
Mentions: The study area was the Central Europe and the Mediterranean basin. It extended from 29.9° to 50°N and from 15.5° to 46.7°E and included 43 countries, 25 of which have experienced WNV in the recent decades. Autochthonous WND cases in horses (animals with clinical symptoms) and humans (West Nile neuroinvasive disease and West Nile fever syndromes) which occurred between 2008–2012 were included in the study. For each case, information about clinical signs onset date along with the address of infected patients or coordinates of the place where equine cases occurred were recorded into the database. A total of 274 case-locations were analysed (Fig 1). Horse cases revealed by serology only were not considered, due to the difficulty of tracing back the date of infection.

Bottom Line: Between May and July, the most suitable areas are located in Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and North Cyprus.Summer/Autumn months, particularly between August and October, characterize the suitability in Italy, France, Spain, the Balkan countries, Morocco, North Tunisia, the Mediterranean coast of Africa, and the Middle East.The persistence of suitable conditions in December is confined to the coastal areas of Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and Israel.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e del Molise 'G. Caporale', Teramo, Italy.

ABSTRACT
West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of the Flaviviridae family. Its spread in the Mediterranean basin and the Balkans poses a significant risk to human health and forces public health officials to constantly monitor the virus transmission to ensure prompt application of preventive measures. In this context, predictive tools indicating the areas and periods at major risk of WNV transmission are of paramount importance. Spatial analysis approaches, which use environmental and climatic variables to find suitable habitats for WNV spread, can enhance predictive techniques. Using the Mahalanobis Distance statistic, areas ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV transmission were identified in the Mediterranean basin and Central Europe. About 270 human and equine clinical cases notified in Italy, Greece, Portugal, Morocco, and Tunisia, between 2008 and 2012, have been considered. The environmental variables included in the model were altitude, slope, night time Land Surface Temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Enhanced Vegetation Index, and daily temperature range. Seasonality of mosquito population has been modelled and included in the analyses to produce monthly maps of suitable areas for West Nile Disease. Between May and July, the most suitable areas are located in Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and North Cyprus. Summer/Autumn months, particularly between August and October, characterize the suitability in Italy, France, Spain, the Balkan countries, Morocco, North Tunisia, the Mediterranean coast of Africa, and the Middle East. The persistence of suitable conditions in December is confined to the coastal areas of Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and Israel.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus