Limits...
Task-switching Cost and Intrinsic Functional Connectivity in the Human Brain: Toward Understanding Individual Differences in Cognitive Flexibility.

Yin S, Wang T, Pan W, Liu Y, Chen A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: This analysis found that switch cost was negatively correlated with a set of iFC involved ROIs including left inferior frontal junction, bilateral superior posterior parietal cortex, left precuneus, bilateral inferior parietal lobule, right middle frontal gyrus and bilateral middle occipital gyrus.These connectivity profiles represent an intrinsic functional architecture of task-switching where the left inferior frontal junction plays a hub role in this brain-behavior association.These findings are highly reproducible in another validation independent sample and provide a novel perspective for understanding the neural basis of individual differences in task-switching behaviors reflected in the intrinsic architecture of the human brain.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key laboratory of Cognition and Personality of Ministry of Education, Faculty of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.

ABSTRACT
The human ability to flexibly alternate between tasks (i.e., task-switching) represents a critical component of cognitive control. Many functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have explored the neural basis of the task-switching. However, no study to date has examined how individual differences in intrinsic functional architecture of the human brain are related to that of the task-switching. In the present study, we took 11 task-switching relevant areas from a meta-analysis study as the regions of interests (ROIs) and estimated their intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) with the whole brain. This procedure was repeated for 32 healthy adults based upon their fMRI scans during resting-state (rfMRI) to investigate the correlations between switching cost and the iFC strength across these participants. This analysis found that switch cost was negatively correlated with a set of iFC involved ROIs including left inferior frontal junction, bilateral superior posterior parietal cortex, left precuneus, bilateral inferior parietal lobule, right middle frontal gyrus and bilateral middle occipital gyrus. These connectivity profiles represent an intrinsic functional architecture of task-switching where the left inferior frontal junction plays a hub role in this brain-behavior association. These findings are highly reproducible in another validation independent sample and provide a novel perspective for understanding the neural basis of individual differences in task-switching behaviors reflected in the intrinsic architecture of the human brain.

Show MeSH
Switch cost relevant iFCs in the left IFJ.The red node represents the location of the left IFJ. Scatter plots with lines of best linear fit show the correlation between standard behavioral switch cost and iFC values in sample 1 and sample 2. Each dot represents data for a single subject. Note: L = left; R = right; FC = functional connectivity; IFJ = inferior frontal junction; PCU = precuneus; SPL = superior parietal lobule; MFG = middle frontal gyrus; MOG = middle occipital gyrus.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4696812&req=5

pone.0145826.g004: Switch cost relevant iFCs in the left IFJ.The red node represents the location of the left IFJ. Scatter plots with lines of best linear fit show the correlation between standard behavioral switch cost and iFC values in sample 1 and sample 2. Each dot represents data for a single subject. Note: L = left; R = right; FC = functional connectivity; IFJ = inferior frontal junction; PCU = precuneus; SPL = superior parietal lobule; MFG = middle frontal gyrus; MOG = middle occipital gyrus.

Mentions: By correlating the iFC strength of task-switching-related ROIs with switch cost, we found that multiple iFCs of the seeds, including left pre-SMA, bilateral inferior parietal lobule (IPL), the left IFJ and the left precuneus, negatively correlated with switch cost in Sample 1. After the test-validation procedure, the iFCs of the left IFJ and the left precuneus as seeds were reproducible in Sample 2 (Table 3). The iFCs between the left IFJ as seed and the left middle occipital gyrus (MOG, BAs 19 and 37, r = -0.64, p < 0.001), the right middle occipital gyrus (MOG, BAs 19 and 37, r = -0.70, p < 0.001), the right superior parietal lobule (SPL, BAs 7 and 40, r = -0.63, p < 0.001), the left precuneus (BAs 7 and 40, r = -0.73, p < 0.001), the right middle frontal gyrus (MFG, BA 6, r = -0.60, p < 0.001) were significantly detectable for predicting individual differences in switch cost (Fig 4). The iFCs between the left precuneus as seed and the left precentral gyrus (BA 6, r = -0.61, p < 0.001), the left IPL (BA 40, r = -0.59, p < 0.001), the right IPL (BA 40, r = -0.58, p < 0.001) significantly contributed to the prediction of switch cost (Fig 5). These correlation results remain significant when different strategies to correct head motion effects or global signal were conducted (Table 4). Furthermore, PPC showed significant iFC-switch cost correlation in the partial correlation mapping of L.IFJ. These regions (Table 5) included the right precuneus (BA 7, r = -0.44, p < 0.001), the left SPL (BA 7, r = -0.48, p < 0.001) and the right SPL (BA 7, r = -0.51, p < 0.001).


Task-switching Cost and Intrinsic Functional Connectivity in the Human Brain: Toward Understanding Individual Differences in Cognitive Flexibility.

Yin S, Wang T, Pan W, Liu Y, Chen A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Switch cost relevant iFCs in the left IFJ.The red node represents the location of the left IFJ. Scatter plots with lines of best linear fit show the correlation between standard behavioral switch cost and iFC values in sample 1 and sample 2. Each dot represents data for a single subject. Note: L = left; R = right; FC = functional connectivity; IFJ = inferior frontal junction; PCU = precuneus; SPL = superior parietal lobule; MFG = middle frontal gyrus; MOG = middle occipital gyrus.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4696812&req=5

pone.0145826.g004: Switch cost relevant iFCs in the left IFJ.The red node represents the location of the left IFJ. Scatter plots with lines of best linear fit show the correlation between standard behavioral switch cost and iFC values in sample 1 and sample 2. Each dot represents data for a single subject. Note: L = left; R = right; FC = functional connectivity; IFJ = inferior frontal junction; PCU = precuneus; SPL = superior parietal lobule; MFG = middle frontal gyrus; MOG = middle occipital gyrus.
Mentions: By correlating the iFC strength of task-switching-related ROIs with switch cost, we found that multiple iFCs of the seeds, including left pre-SMA, bilateral inferior parietal lobule (IPL), the left IFJ and the left precuneus, negatively correlated with switch cost in Sample 1. After the test-validation procedure, the iFCs of the left IFJ and the left precuneus as seeds were reproducible in Sample 2 (Table 3). The iFCs between the left IFJ as seed and the left middle occipital gyrus (MOG, BAs 19 and 37, r = -0.64, p < 0.001), the right middle occipital gyrus (MOG, BAs 19 and 37, r = -0.70, p < 0.001), the right superior parietal lobule (SPL, BAs 7 and 40, r = -0.63, p < 0.001), the left precuneus (BAs 7 and 40, r = -0.73, p < 0.001), the right middle frontal gyrus (MFG, BA 6, r = -0.60, p < 0.001) were significantly detectable for predicting individual differences in switch cost (Fig 4). The iFCs between the left precuneus as seed and the left precentral gyrus (BA 6, r = -0.61, p < 0.001), the left IPL (BA 40, r = -0.59, p < 0.001), the right IPL (BA 40, r = -0.58, p < 0.001) significantly contributed to the prediction of switch cost (Fig 5). These correlation results remain significant when different strategies to correct head motion effects or global signal were conducted (Table 4). Furthermore, PPC showed significant iFC-switch cost correlation in the partial correlation mapping of L.IFJ. These regions (Table 5) included the right precuneus (BA 7, r = -0.44, p < 0.001), the left SPL (BA 7, r = -0.48, p < 0.001) and the right SPL (BA 7, r = -0.51, p < 0.001).

Bottom Line: This analysis found that switch cost was negatively correlated with a set of iFC involved ROIs including left inferior frontal junction, bilateral superior posterior parietal cortex, left precuneus, bilateral inferior parietal lobule, right middle frontal gyrus and bilateral middle occipital gyrus.These connectivity profiles represent an intrinsic functional architecture of task-switching where the left inferior frontal junction plays a hub role in this brain-behavior association.These findings are highly reproducible in another validation independent sample and provide a novel perspective for understanding the neural basis of individual differences in task-switching behaviors reflected in the intrinsic architecture of the human brain.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key laboratory of Cognition and Personality of Ministry of Education, Faculty of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.

ABSTRACT
The human ability to flexibly alternate between tasks (i.e., task-switching) represents a critical component of cognitive control. Many functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have explored the neural basis of the task-switching. However, no study to date has examined how individual differences in intrinsic functional architecture of the human brain are related to that of the task-switching. In the present study, we took 11 task-switching relevant areas from a meta-analysis study as the regions of interests (ROIs) and estimated their intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) with the whole brain. This procedure was repeated for 32 healthy adults based upon their fMRI scans during resting-state (rfMRI) to investigate the correlations between switching cost and the iFC strength across these participants. This analysis found that switch cost was negatively correlated with a set of iFC involved ROIs including left inferior frontal junction, bilateral superior posterior parietal cortex, left precuneus, bilateral inferior parietal lobule, right middle frontal gyrus and bilateral middle occipital gyrus. These connectivity profiles represent an intrinsic functional architecture of task-switching where the left inferior frontal junction plays a hub role in this brain-behavior association. These findings are highly reproducible in another validation independent sample and provide a novel perspective for understanding the neural basis of individual differences in task-switching behaviors reflected in the intrinsic architecture of the human brain.

Show MeSH