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Task-switching Cost and Intrinsic Functional Connectivity in the Human Brain: Toward Understanding Individual Differences in Cognitive Flexibility.

Yin S, Wang T, Pan W, Liu Y, Chen A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: This analysis found that switch cost was negatively correlated with a set of iFC involved ROIs including left inferior frontal junction, bilateral superior posterior parietal cortex, left precuneus, bilateral inferior parietal lobule, right middle frontal gyrus and bilateral middle occipital gyrus.These connectivity profiles represent an intrinsic functional architecture of task-switching where the left inferior frontal junction plays a hub role in this brain-behavior association.These findings are highly reproducible in another validation independent sample and provide a novel perspective for understanding the neural basis of individual differences in task-switching behaviors reflected in the intrinsic architecture of the human brain.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key laboratory of Cognition and Personality of Ministry of Education, Faculty of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.

ABSTRACT
The human ability to flexibly alternate between tasks (i.e., task-switching) represents a critical component of cognitive control. Many functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have explored the neural basis of the task-switching. However, no study to date has examined how individual differences in intrinsic functional architecture of the human brain are related to that of the task-switching. In the present study, we took 11 task-switching relevant areas from a meta-analysis study as the regions of interests (ROIs) and estimated their intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) with the whole brain. This procedure was repeated for 32 healthy adults based upon their fMRI scans during resting-state (rfMRI) to investigate the correlations between switching cost and the iFC strength across these participants. This analysis found that switch cost was negatively correlated with a set of iFC involved ROIs including left inferior frontal junction, bilateral superior posterior parietal cortex, left precuneus, bilateral inferior parietal lobule, right middle frontal gyrus and bilateral middle occipital gyrus. These connectivity profiles represent an intrinsic functional architecture of task-switching where the left inferior frontal junction plays a hub role in this brain-behavior association. These findings are highly reproducible in another validation independent sample and provide a novel perspective for understanding the neural basis of individual differences in task-switching behaviors reflected in the intrinsic architecture of the human brain.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

RT results and switch cost in the two samples.(a) & (c) respectively represent mean RT in the switch and task repetition condition for Sample 1 and Sample 2. (b) & (d) respectively represent individual differences related to switch cost for Sample 1 and Sample 2. Each circle represents a participant’s switch cost. The solid line indicates zero switch cost, and the dashed line represents the mean switch cost.
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pone.0145826.g003: RT results and switch cost in the two samples.(a) & (c) respectively represent mean RT in the switch and task repetition condition for Sample 1 and Sample 2. (b) & (d) respectively represent individual differences related to switch cost for Sample 1 and Sample 2. Each circle represents a participant’s switch cost. The solid line indicates zero switch cost, and the dashed line represents the mean switch cost.

Mentions: Mean RTs and accuracy data for all conditions (for both samples) are presented in Table 2 and Fig 3. Paired samples T-test for RT and accuracy showed that subjects consumed longer time [t(31) = 7.17; p < 0.001] and made more errors [t(31) = 3.35; p < 0.01] when responding to switching trials than repetition trials in Sample 1. The results derived from Sample 2 are similar to that from Sample 1: RT [t(27) = 5.09; p < 0.001] and Accuracy [t(27) = 3.92; p < 0.01]. These results indicated a significant switch cost in the two samples (Fig 3a and 3b). As shown in Fig 3c and 3d, there was a substantial amount of inter-individual variability in switch cost.


Task-switching Cost and Intrinsic Functional Connectivity in the Human Brain: Toward Understanding Individual Differences in Cognitive Flexibility.

Yin S, Wang T, Pan W, Liu Y, Chen A - PLoS ONE (2015)

RT results and switch cost in the two samples.(a) & (c) respectively represent mean RT in the switch and task repetition condition for Sample 1 and Sample 2. (b) & (d) respectively represent individual differences related to switch cost for Sample 1 and Sample 2. Each circle represents a participant’s switch cost. The solid line indicates zero switch cost, and the dashed line represents the mean switch cost.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4696812&req=5

pone.0145826.g003: RT results and switch cost in the two samples.(a) & (c) respectively represent mean RT in the switch and task repetition condition for Sample 1 and Sample 2. (b) & (d) respectively represent individual differences related to switch cost for Sample 1 and Sample 2. Each circle represents a participant’s switch cost. The solid line indicates zero switch cost, and the dashed line represents the mean switch cost.
Mentions: Mean RTs and accuracy data for all conditions (for both samples) are presented in Table 2 and Fig 3. Paired samples T-test for RT and accuracy showed that subjects consumed longer time [t(31) = 7.17; p < 0.001] and made more errors [t(31) = 3.35; p < 0.01] when responding to switching trials than repetition trials in Sample 1. The results derived from Sample 2 are similar to that from Sample 1: RT [t(27) = 5.09; p < 0.001] and Accuracy [t(27) = 3.92; p < 0.01]. These results indicated a significant switch cost in the two samples (Fig 3a and 3b). As shown in Fig 3c and 3d, there was a substantial amount of inter-individual variability in switch cost.

Bottom Line: This analysis found that switch cost was negatively correlated with a set of iFC involved ROIs including left inferior frontal junction, bilateral superior posterior parietal cortex, left precuneus, bilateral inferior parietal lobule, right middle frontal gyrus and bilateral middle occipital gyrus.These connectivity profiles represent an intrinsic functional architecture of task-switching where the left inferior frontal junction plays a hub role in this brain-behavior association.These findings are highly reproducible in another validation independent sample and provide a novel perspective for understanding the neural basis of individual differences in task-switching behaviors reflected in the intrinsic architecture of the human brain.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key laboratory of Cognition and Personality of Ministry of Education, Faculty of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.

ABSTRACT
The human ability to flexibly alternate between tasks (i.e., task-switching) represents a critical component of cognitive control. Many functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have explored the neural basis of the task-switching. However, no study to date has examined how individual differences in intrinsic functional architecture of the human brain are related to that of the task-switching. In the present study, we took 11 task-switching relevant areas from a meta-analysis study as the regions of interests (ROIs) and estimated their intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) with the whole brain. This procedure was repeated for 32 healthy adults based upon their fMRI scans during resting-state (rfMRI) to investigate the correlations between switching cost and the iFC strength across these participants. This analysis found that switch cost was negatively correlated with a set of iFC involved ROIs including left inferior frontal junction, bilateral superior posterior parietal cortex, left precuneus, bilateral inferior parietal lobule, right middle frontal gyrus and bilateral middle occipital gyrus. These connectivity profiles represent an intrinsic functional architecture of task-switching where the left inferior frontal junction plays a hub role in this brain-behavior association. These findings are highly reproducible in another validation independent sample and provide a novel perspective for understanding the neural basis of individual differences in task-switching behaviors reflected in the intrinsic architecture of the human brain.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus