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Task-switching Cost and Intrinsic Functional Connectivity in the Human Brain: Toward Understanding Individual Differences in Cognitive Flexibility.

Yin S, Wang T, Pan W, Liu Y, Chen A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: This analysis found that switch cost was negatively correlated with a set of iFC involved ROIs including left inferior frontal junction, bilateral superior posterior parietal cortex, left precuneus, bilateral inferior parietal lobule, right middle frontal gyrus and bilateral middle occipital gyrus.These connectivity profiles represent an intrinsic functional architecture of task-switching where the left inferior frontal junction plays a hub role in this brain-behavior association.These findings are highly reproducible in another validation independent sample and provide a novel perspective for understanding the neural basis of individual differences in task-switching behaviors reflected in the intrinsic architecture of the human brain.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key laboratory of Cognition and Personality of Ministry of Education, Faculty of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.

ABSTRACT
The human ability to flexibly alternate between tasks (i.e., task-switching) represents a critical component of cognitive control. Many functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have explored the neural basis of the task-switching. However, no study to date has examined how individual differences in intrinsic functional architecture of the human brain are related to that of the task-switching. In the present study, we took 11 task-switching relevant areas from a meta-analysis study as the regions of interests (ROIs) and estimated their intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) with the whole brain. This procedure was repeated for 32 healthy adults based upon their fMRI scans during resting-state (rfMRI) to investigate the correlations between switching cost and the iFC strength across these participants. This analysis found that switch cost was negatively correlated with a set of iFC involved ROIs including left inferior frontal junction, bilateral superior posterior parietal cortex, left precuneus, bilateral inferior parietal lobule, right middle frontal gyrus and bilateral middle occipital gyrus. These connectivity profiles represent an intrinsic functional architecture of task-switching where the left inferior frontal junction plays a hub role in this brain-behavior association. These findings are highly reproducible in another validation independent sample and provide a novel perspective for understanding the neural basis of individual differences in task-switching behaviors reflected in the intrinsic architecture of the human brain.

Show MeSH
Display of rule types.During scanning, participants viewed an instructional cue for 1 s. After a 0.5 s delay, the target stimulus was presented for 2.5 s. The target required a left- or right-button response, depending on the relevant S–R mapping learned before scanning.
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pone.0145826.g001: Display of rule types.During scanning, participants viewed an instructional cue for 1 s. After a 0.5 s delay, the target stimulus was presented for 2.5 s. The target required a left- or right-button response, depending on the relevant S–R mapping learned before scanning.

Mentions: Participants performed the behavioral tasks soon after the rfMRI scanning, which was described with details in following subsection. They need to learn how to associate each of two visual cues with a set of S-R mappings (Fig 1). The task involved a visual cue that instructed the participants which rule to use, followed by a target stimulus that required a left- or right-button response. The cue could be a circle or a triangle. A house or a tree could follow the circle cue, and participants were instructed to respond with a left-button press to the house and with a right-button press to the tree. A house or a tree could also follow the triangle cue, but for this cue the S-R mapping was reversed: the house was associated with a right-button response and the tree with a left-button response. The response key sequences were counterbalanced across participants.


Task-switching Cost and Intrinsic Functional Connectivity in the Human Brain: Toward Understanding Individual Differences in Cognitive Flexibility.

Yin S, Wang T, Pan W, Liu Y, Chen A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Display of rule types.During scanning, participants viewed an instructional cue for 1 s. After a 0.5 s delay, the target stimulus was presented for 2.5 s. The target required a left- or right-button response, depending on the relevant S–R mapping learned before scanning.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4696812&req=5

pone.0145826.g001: Display of rule types.During scanning, participants viewed an instructional cue for 1 s. After a 0.5 s delay, the target stimulus was presented for 2.5 s. The target required a left- or right-button response, depending on the relevant S–R mapping learned before scanning.
Mentions: Participants performed the behavioral tasks soon after the rfMRI scanning, which was described with details in following subsection. They need to learn how to associate each of two visual cues with a set of S-R mappings (Fig 1). The task involved a visual cue that instructed the participants which rule to use, followed by a target stimulus that required a left- or right-button response. The cue could be a circle or a triangle. A house or a tree could follow the circle cue, and participants were instructed to respond with a left-button press to the house and with a right-button press to the tree. A house or a tree could also follow the triangle cue, but for this cue the S-R mapping was reversed: the house was associated with a right-button response and the tree with a left-button response. The response key sequences were counterbalanced across participants.

Bottom Line: This analysis found that switch cost was negatively correlated with a set of iFC involved ROIs including left inferior frontal junction, bilateral superior posterior parietal cortex, left precuneus, bilateral inferior parietal lobule, right middle frontal gyrus and bilateral middle occipital gyrus.These connectivity profiles represent an intrinsic functional architecture of task-switching where the left inferior frontal junction plays a hub role in this brain-behavior association.These findings are highly reproducible in another validation independent sample and provide a novel perspective for understanding the neural basis of individual differences in task-switching behaviors reflected in the intrinsic architecture of the human brain.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key laboratory of Cognition and Personality of Ministry of Education, Faculty of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.

ABSTRACT
The human ability to flexibly alternate between tasks (i.e., task-switching) represents a critical component of cognitive control. Many functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have explored the neural basis of the task-switching. However, no study to date has examined how individual differences in intrinsic functional architecture of the human brain are related to that of the task-switching. In the present study, we took 11 task-switching relevant areas from a meta-analysis study as the regions of interests (ROIs) and estimated their intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) with the whole brain. This procedure was repeated for 32 healthy adults based upon their fMRI scans during resting-state (rfMRI) to investigate the correlations between switching cost and the iFC strength across these participants. This analysis found that switch cost was negatively correlated with a set of iFC involved ROIs including left inferior frontal junction, bilateral superior posterior parietal cortex, left precuneus, bilateral inferior parietal lobule, right middle frontal gyrus and bilateral middle occipital gyrus. These connectivity profiles represent an intrinsic functional architecture of task-switching where the left inferior frontal junction plays a hub role in this brain-behavior association. These findings are highly reproducible in another validation independent sample and provide a novel perspective for understanding the neural basis of individual differences in task-switching behaviors reflected in the intrinsic architecture of the human brain.

Show MeSH