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Arithmetic Memory Is Modality Specific.

Myers T, Szücs D - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: In regards to numerical cognition and working memory, it is an open question as to whether numbers are stored into and retrieved from a central abstract representation or from separate notation-specific representations.The participants were presented with numbers (1-9) as either Arabic digits or written number words (Arabic digits and dot matrices in Experiment 2) at the first (S1) and second (S2) stimuli.The participant's task was to add the first two stimuli together and verify whether the answer (S3), presented simultaneously with S2, was correct.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Neuroscience in Education, Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
In regards to numerical cognition and working memory, it is an open question as to whether numbers are stored into and retrieved from a central abstract representation or from separate notation-specific representations. This study seeks to help answer this by utilizing the numeral modality effect (NME) in three experiments to explore how numbers are processed by the human brain. The participants were presented with numbers (1-9) as either Arabic digits or written number words (Arabic digits and dot matrices in Experiment 2) at the first (S1) and second (S2) stimuli. The participant's task was to add the first two stimuli together and verify whether the answer (S3), presented simultaneously with S2, was correct. We hypothesized that if reaction time (RT) at S2/S3 depends on the modality of S1 then numbers are retrieved from modality specific memory stores. Indeed, RT depended on the modality of S1 whenever S2 was an Arabic digit which argues against the concept of numbers being stored and retrieved from a central, abstract representation.

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Dehaene’s Triple Code Model—Numbers are stored in three individual yet integrated codes.The Analog Magnitude code is an abstract representation that provides the basic sense that gives meaning to numbers (The figure is based on Dehaene, 1992; page 31).
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pone.0145614.g002: Dehaene’s Triple Code Model—Numbers are stored in three individual yet integrated codes.The Analog Magnitude code is an abstract representation that provides the basic sense that gives meaning to numbers (The figure is based on Dehaene, 1992; page 31).

Mentions: Another model that is popular currently is the triple code model proposed by Stanislas Dehaene [5] shown in Fig 2 below. Aspects of Dehaene’s model can be seen as a combination of the above two models. It consists of three separate yet integrated neural codes. One code, located in the left and right inferior ventral occipito-temporal areas, is responsible for processing Arabic digits. Another code, located in the left perisylvian area, is responsible for processing number words as well as the algorithms used for calculating and the math facts that are stored in memory. Both of these codes are modality and notation-dependent, similarly to Campbell and Clark’s encoding-complex model. The third code in Dehaene’s model, located in the left and right intraparietal sulci, especially in the horizontal intraparietal sulci (hIPS), is responsible for abstract, analogue representations of number. This is the code which allows for making comparisons and for comprehending magnitude. Also similarly to the encoding-complex model, Dehaene’s three codes are interconnected and can be called upon depending on the task. In regards to the semantic representation of number, Dehaene has proposed that the magnitude representation area, hIPS, is the module where abstract representations of numbers are encoded. His model provides for a direct path between the Arabic and verbal codes which bypasses the magnitude code; however, this is only in instances where the conscious meaning of number is not required. For all number processing and calculations in which the meaning of number must be comprehended, the numbers must be encoded into the same abstract representation area (i.e. magnitude area) irrespective of the modality in which the number was first presented [6, 7, 8]. In this sense, the triple code model is very similar to McCloskey’s abstract modular model in that there is a central abstract area for the representation of number which acts as a bottleneck for number cognition.


Arithmetic Memory Is Modality Specific.

Myers T, Szücs D - PLoS ONE (2015)

Dehaene’s Triple Code Model—Numbers are stored in three individual yet integrated codes.The Analog Magnitude code is an abstract representation that provides the basic sense that gives meaning to numbers (The figure is based on Dehaene, 1992; page 31).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4696806&req=5

pone.0145614.g002: Dehaene’s Triple Code Model—Numbers are stored in three individual yet integrated codes.The Analog Magnitude code is an abstract representation that provides the basic sense that gives meaning to numbers (The figure is based on Dehaene, 1992; page 31).
Mentions: Another model that is popular currently is the triple code model proposed by Stanislas Dehaene [5] shown in Fig 2 below. Aspects of Dehaene’s model can be seen as a combination of the above two models. It consists of three separate yet integrated neural codes. One code, located in the left and right inferior ventral occipito-temporal areas, is responsible for processing Arabic digits. Another code, located in the left perisylvian area, is responsible for processing number words as well as the algorithms used for calculating and the math facts that are stored in memory. Both of these codes are modality and notation-dependent, similarly to Campbell and Clark’s encoding-complex model. The third code in Dehaene’s model, located in the left and right intraparietal sulci, especially in the horizontal intraparietal sulci (hIPS), is responsible for abstract, analogue representations of number. This is the code which allows for making comparisons and for comprehending magnitude. Also similarly to the encoding-complex model, Dehaene’s three codes are interconnected and can be called upon depending on the task. In regards to the semantic representation of number, Dehaene has proposed that the magnitude representation area, hIPS, is the module where abstract representations of numbers are encoded. His model provides for a direct path between the Arabic and verbal codes which bypasses the magnitude code; however, this is only in instances where the conscious meaning of number is not required. For all number processing and calculations in which the meaning of number must be comprehended, the numbers must be encoded into the same abstract representation area (i.e. magnitude area) irrespective of the modality in which the number was first presented [6, 7, 8]. In this sense, the triple code model is very similar to McCloskey’s abstract modular model in that there is a central abstract area for the representation of number which acts as a bottleneck for number cognition.

Bottom Line: In regards to numerical cognition and working memory, it is an open question as to whether numbers are stored into and retrieved from a central abstract representation or from separate notation-specific representations.The participants were presented with numbers (1-9) as either Arabic digits or written number words (Arabic digits and dot matrices in Experiment 2) at the first (S1) and second (S2) stimuli.The participant's task was to add the first two stimuli together and verify whether the answer (S3), presented simultaneously with S2, was correct.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Neuroscience in Education, Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
In regards to numerical cognition and working memory, it is an open question as to whether numbers are stored into and retrieved from a central abstract representation or from separate notation-specific representations. This study seeks to help answer this by utilizing the numeral modality effect (NME) in three experiments to explore how numbers are processed by the human brain. The participants were presented with numbers (1-9) as either Arabic digits or written number words (Arabic digits and dot matrices in Experiment 2) at the first (S1) and second (S2) stimuli. The participant's task was to add the first two stimuli together and verify whether the answer (S3), presented simultaneously with S2, was correct. We hypothesized that if reaction time (RT) at S2/S3 depends on the modality of S1 then numbers are retrieved from modality specific memory stores. Indeed, RT depended on the modality of S1 whenever S2 was an Arabic digit which argues against the concept of numbers being stored and retrieved from a central, abstract representation.

Show MeSH