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Arithmetic Memory Is Modality Specific.

Myers T, Szücs D - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: In regards to numerical cognition and working memory, it is an open question as to whether numbers are stored into and retrieved from a central abstract representation or from separate notation-specific representations.The participants were presented with numbers (1-9) as either Arabic digits or written number words (Arabic digits and dot matrices in Experiment 2) at the first (S1) and second (S2) stimuli.The participant's task was to add the first two stimuli together and verify whether the answer (S3), presented simultaneously with S2, was correct.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Neuroscience in Education, Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
In regards to numerical cognition and working memory, it is an open question as to whether numbers are stored into and retrieved from a central abstract representation or from separate notation-specific representations. This study seeks to help answer this by utilizing the numeral modality effect (NME) in three experiments to explore how numbers are processed by the human brain. The participants were presented with numbers (1-9) as either Arabic digits or written number words (Arabic digits and dot matrices in Experiment 2) at the first (S1) and second (S2) stimuli. The participant's task was to add the first two stimuli together and verify whether the answer (S3), presented simultaneously with S2, was correct. We hypothesized that if reaction time (RT) at S2/S3 depends on the modality of S1 then numbers are retrieved from modality specific memory stores. Indeed, RT depended on the modality of S1 whenever S2 was an Arabic digit which argues against the concept of numbers being stored and retrieved from a central, abstract representation.

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McCloskey’s Abstract Modular Model—Numbers are inputted from a specific modality such as digits or number words and are translated into an abstract representation from which they can then be outputted into a specific modality via either calculation or number production (The figure is based on Dehaene, 1992; page 28).
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pone.0145614.g001: McCloskey’s Abstract Modular Model—Numbers are inputted from a specific modality such as digits or number words and are translated into an abstract representation from which they can then be outputted into a specific modality via either calculation or number production (The figure is based on Dehaene, 1992; page 28).

Mentions: Using these conclusions as a foundation, McCloskey and colleagues proposed the abstract modular model as shown below in Fig 1. It is comprised of three distinct systems: number comprehension, calculation and number production. Central to the model is the abstract representation module which interconnects all of the systems. In the input stage of this model, the number comprehension system translates numbers from whichever modality may be encountered and encodes them into an abstract representation. From there, the abstract representations can be used to calculate or to produce numbers. The final output can be translated into whatever modality is called for.


Arithmetic Memory Is Modality Specific.

Myers T, Szücs D - PLoS ONE (2015)

McCloskey’s Abstract Modular Model—Numbers are inputted from a specific modality such as digits or number words and are translated into an abstract representation from which they can then be outputted into a specific modality via either calculation or number production (The figure is based on Dehaene, 1992; page 28).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4696806&req=5

pone.0145614.g001: McCloskey’s Abstract Modular Model—Numbers are inputted from a specific modality such as digits or number words and are translated into an abstract representation from which they can then be outputted into a specific modality via either calculation or number production (The figure is based on Dehaene, 1992; page 28).
Mentions: Using these conclusions as a foundation, McCloskey and colleagues proposed the abstract modular model as shown below in Fig 1. It is comprised of three distinct systems: number comprehension, calculation and number production. Central to the model is the abstract representation module which interconnects all of the systems. In the input stage of this model, the number comprehension system translates numbers from whichever modality may be encountered and encodes them into an abstract representation. From there, the abstract representations can be used to calculate or to produce numbers. The final output can be translated into whatever modality is called for.

Bottom Line: In regards to numerical cognition and working memory, it is an open question as to whether numbers are stored into and retrieved from a central abstract representation or from separate notation-specific representations.The participants were presented with numbers (1-9) as either Arabic digits or written number words (Arabic digits and dot matrices in Experiment 2) at the first (S1) and second (S2) stimuli.The participant's task was to add the first two stimuli together and verify whether the answer (S3), presented simultaneously with S2, was correct.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Neuroscience in Education, Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
In regards to numerical cognition and working memory, it is an open question as to whether numbers are stored into and retrieved from a central abstract representation or from separate notation-specific representations. This study seeks to help answer this by utilizing the numeral modality effect (NME) in three experiments to explore how numbers are processed by the human brain. The participants were presented with numbers (1-9) as either Arabic digits or written number words (Arabic digits and dot matrices in Experiment 2) at the first (S1) and second (S2) stimuli. The participant's task was to add the first two stimuli together and verify whether the answer (S3), presented simultaneously with S2, was correct. We hypothesized that if reaction time (RT) at S2/S3 depends on the modality of S1 then numbers are retrieved from modality specific memory stores. Indeed, RT depended on the modality of S1 whenever S2 was an Arabic digit which argues against the concept of numbers being stored and retrieved from a central, abstract representation.

Show MeSH