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Nutrients Limiting Soybean (glycine max l) Growth in Acrisols and Ferralsols of Western Kenya.

Keino L, Baijukya F, Ng'etich W, Otinga AN, Okalebo JR, Njoroge R, Mukalama J - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Nutrients omission resulted in their significantly low concentration in plant tissues than the complete treatment.Nitrogen significantly improved SDWs in soils from Kakamega and Butula.The results also signify necessity of application of small quantities of N for initial soybean use.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Soil Science, University of Eldoret, Eldoret, Kenya.

ABSTRACT
Low soybean yields in western Kenya have been attributed to low soil fertility despite much work done on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) nutrition leading to suspicion of other nutrient limitations. To investigate this, a nutrient omission trial was set up in the greenhouse at the University of Eldoret-Kenya to diagnose the nutrients limiting soybean production in Acrisols from Masaba central and Butere sub-Counties, and Ferralsols from Kakamega (Shikhulu and Khwisero sub-locations) and Butula sub-Counties and to assess the effect of liming on soil pH and soybean growth. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design with ten treatments viz; positive control (complete), negative control (distilled water), complete with lime, complete with N, minus macronutrients P, potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and sulphur (S) and with, micro-nutrients boron (B), molybdenum (Mo), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) omitted. Visual deficiency symptoms observed included interveinal leaf yellowing in Mg omission and N addition and dark green leaves in P omission. Nutrients omission resulted in their significantly low concentration in plant tissues than the complete treatment. Significantly (P≤ 0.05) lower shoot dry weights (SDWs) than the complete treatment were obtained in different treatments; omission of K and Mg in Masaba and Shikhulu, Mg in Khwisero, K in Butere and, P, Mg and K in Butula. Nitrogen significantly improved SDWs in soils from Kakamega and Butula. Liming significantly raised soil pH by 9, 13 and 11% from 4.65, 4.91 and 4.99 in soils from Masaba, Butere and Butula respectively and soybean SDWs in soils from Butere. The results show that, poor soybean growth was due to K, Mg and P limitation and low pH in some soils. The results also signify necessity of application of small quantities of N for initial soybean use.

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Nutrient deficiency symptoms noted during plant growth.(A) Mg deficiency in plus nitrogen treatment in Ferralsols from Kakamega (Shikhulu Sub-location), (B) K deficiency in minus K treatments in Ferralsols from Kakamega (Shikhulu sub-location), (C) P deficiency in minus magnesium treatments in Ferralsols from Butula, (D) Micro-nutrient deficiencies in minus micro-nutrient treatments in Acrisols from Masaba Central.
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pone.0145202.g002: Nutrient deficiency symptoms noted during plant growth.(A) Mg deficiency in plus nitrogen treatment in Ferralsols from Kakamega (Shikhulu Sub-location), (B) K deficiency in minus K treatments in Ferralsols from Kakamega (Shikhulu sub-location), (C) P deficiency in minus magnesium treatments in Ferralsols from Butula, (D) Micro-nutrient deficiencies in minus micro-nutrient treatments in Acrisols from Masaba Central.

Mentions: The most common deficiency symptom observed was that of Mg where there was interveinal leaf yellowing especially in treatments of plus nitrogen and a few of Mg omitted treatments across the soils (Fig 2A). Deficiencies of K were also noted mainly on older leaves of K omitted treatments and also on several other treatments. These were characterized by leaf yellowing with tissue necrosis along the leaf margins (Fig 2B). Early leaf drop was observed in plants growing in the treatments with both Mg and K deficient treatments, and this led to low shoot dry weights being recorded by the same treatments, especially at the final harvest. Plants growing in the control (only distilled water) and in the treatments where P and Ca were omitted maintained green leaf colour to the end of the experimental period. Other treatments (complete, minus sulphur, minus micro-nutrients and complete plus lime) had pale yellow leaves at the time of harvesting (Fig 3G) indicating possible deficiencies of nitrogen.


Nutrients Limiting Soybean (glycine max l) Growth in Acrisols and Ferralsols of Western Kenya.

Keino L, Baijukya F, Ng'etich W, Otinga AN, Okalebo JR, Njoroge R, Mukalama J - PLoS ONE (2015)

Nutrient deficiency symptoms noted during plant growth.(A) Mg deficiency in plus nitrogen treatment in Ferralsols from Kakamega (Shikhulu Sub-location), (B) K deficiency in minus K treatments in Ferralsols from Kakamega (Shikhulu sub-location), (C) P deficiency in minus magnesium treatments in Ferralsols from Butula, (D) Micro-nutrient deficiencies in minus micro-nutrient treatments in Acrisols from Masaba Central.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4696802&req=5

pone.0145202.g002: Nutrient deficiency symptoms noted during plant growth.(A) Mg deficiency in plus nitrogen treatment in Ferralsols from Kakamega (Shikhulu Sub-location), (B) K deficiency in minus K treatments in Ferralsols from Kakamega (Shikhulu sub-location), (C) P deficiency in minus magnesium treatments in Ferralsols from Butula, (D) Micro-nutrient deficiencies in minus micro-nutrient treatments in Acrisols from Masaba Central.
Mentions: The most common deficiency symptom observed was that of Mg where there was interveinal leaf yellowing especially in treatments of plus nitrogen and a few of Mg omitted treatments across the soils (Fig 2A). Deficiencies of K were also noted mainly on older leaves of K omitted treatments and also on several other treatments. These were characterized by leaf yellowing with tissue necrosis along the leaf margins (Fig 2B). Early leaf drop was observed in plants growing in the treatments with both Mg and K deficient treatments, and this led to low shoot dry weights being recorded by the same treatments, especially at the final harvest. Plants growing in the control (only distilled water) and in the treatments where P and Ca were omitted maintained green leaf colour to the end of the experimental period. Other treatments (complete, minus sulphur, minus micro-nutrients and complete plus lime) had pale yellow leaves at the time of harvesting (Fig 3G) indicating possible deficiencies of nitrogen.

Bottom Line: Nutrients omission resulted in their significantly low concentration in plant tissues than the complete treatment.Nitrogen significantly improved SDWs in soils from Kakamega and Butula.The results also signify necessity of application of small quantities of N for initial soybean use.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Soil Science, University of Eldoret, Eldoret, Kenya.

ABSTRACT
Low soybean yields in western Kenya have been attributed to low soil fertility despite much work done on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) nutrition leading to suspicion of other nutrient limitations. To investigate this, a nutrient omission trial was set up in the greenhouse at the University of Eldoret-Kenya to diagnose the nutrients limiting soybean production in Acrisols from Masaba central and Butere sub-Counties, and Ferralsols from Kakamega (Shikhulu and Khwisero sub-locations) and Butula sub-Counties and to assess the effect of liming on soil pH and soybean growth. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design with ten treatments viz; positive control (complete), negative control (distilled water), complete with lime, complete with N, minus macronutrients P, potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and sulphur (S) and with, micro-nutrients boron (B), molybdenum (Mo), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) omitted. Visual deficiency symptoms observed included interveinal leaf yellowing in Mg omission and N addition and dark green leaves in P omission. Nutrients omission resulted in their significantly low concentration in plant tissues than the complete treatment. Significantly (P≤ 0.05) lower shoot dry weights (SDWs) than the complete treatment were obtained in different treatments; omission of K and Mg in Masaba and Shikhulu, Mg in Khwisero, K in Butere and, P, Mg and K in Butula. Nitrogen significantly improved SDWs in soils from Kakamega and Butula. Liming significantly raised soil pH by 9, 13 and 11% from 4.65, 4.91 and 4.99 in soils from Masaba, Butere and Butula respectively and soybean SDWs in soils from Butere. The results show that, poor soybean growth was due to K, Mg and P limitation and low pH in some soils. The results also signify necessity of application of small quantities of N for initial soybean use.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus