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Large-Scale Trade in Legally Protected Marine Mollusc Shells from Java and Bali, Indonesia.

Nijman V, Spaan D, Nekaris KA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Data from 20 confiscated shipments show an on-going trade in these molluscs.Two-thirds of this trade was destined for international markets, including in the USA and Asia-Pacific region.This impedes protection of these species on the ground and calls into question the effectiveness of protected species management in Indonesia; solutions are unlikely to be found only in Indonesia and must involve the cooperation of importing countries.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Oxford Wildlife Trade Research Group, Oxford Brookes University, OX3 0BP, Oxford, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT

Background: Tropical marine molluscs are traded globally. Larger species with slow life histories are under threat from over-exploitation. We report on the trade in protected marine mollusc shells in and from Java and Bali, Indonesia. Since 1987 twelve species of marine molluscs are protected under Indonesian law to shield them from overexploitation. Despite this protection they are traded openly in large volumes.

Methodology/principal findings: We collected data on species composition, origins, volumes and prices at two large open markets (2013), collected data from wholesale traders (2013), and compiled seizure data by the Indonesian authorities (2008-2013). All twelve protected species were observed in trade. Smaller species were traded for 32,000 shells valued at USD500,000), chambered nautilus (Nautilus pompilius) (>3,000 shells, USD60,000) and giant clams (Tridacna spp.) (>2,000 shells, USD45,000) were traded in largest volumes. Two-thirds of this trade was destined for international markets, including in the USA and Asia-Pacific region.

Conclusions/significance: We demonstrated that the trade in protected marine mollusc shells in Indonesia is not controlled nor monitored, that it involves large volumes, and that networks of shell collectors, traders, middlemen and exporters span the globe. This impedes protection of these species on the ground and calls into question the effectiveness of protected species management in Indonesia; solutions are unlikely to be found only in Indonesia and must involve the cooperation of importing countries.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Shell trade networks.Protected marine molluscs shell trade networks in Java and Bali, Indonesia. Size of circles are proportional to the volume of trade: small = 10s, medium-100s, large-1000s and very large = 10,000s. Kendari is situated in south-central Sulawesi 800 km northeast of Bali.
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pone.0140593.g003: Shell trade networks.Protected marine molluscs shell trade networks in Java and Bali, Indonesia. Size of circles are proportional to the volume of trade: small = 10s, medium-100s, large-1000s and very large = 10,000s. Kendari is situated in south-central Sulawesi 800 km northeast of Bali.

Mentions: In terms of trade networks and similarities in species composition of protected molluscs observed in trade or confiscated by the authorities (Fig 3), clear links occur between Pangandaran and Surabaya (Baroni-Urbani Buser coefficient of 0.913) and Sumenep (0.837) and between Pasir Putih and Surabaya (0.853) and Banyuwangi (0.840). Surabaya emerges as a centre for the trade in protected mollusc shells with clear links to Sumenep on nearby Madura (0.913) and Kendari on Sulawesi (0.913). Likewise, links between Bali and Sulwesi (0.775) are evident. At an international level, trade links between these Indonesian islands and North America occur as well as the Asia-Pacific region.


Large-Scale Trade in Legally Protected Marine Mollusc Shells from Java and Bali, Indonesia.

Nijman V, Spaan D, Nekaris KA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Shell trade networks.Protected marine molluscs shell trade networks in Java and Bali, Indonesia. Size of circles are proportional to the volume of trade: small = 10s, medium-100s, large-1000s and very large = 10,000s. Kendari is situated in south-central Sulawesi 800 km northeast of Bali.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4696778&req=5

pone.0140593.g003: Shell trade networks.Protected marine molluscs shell trade networks in Java and Bali, Indonesia. Size of circles are proportional to the volume of trade: small = 10s, medium-100s, large-1000s and very large = 10,000s. Kendari is situated in south-central Sulawesi 800 km northeast of Bali.
Mentions: In terms of trade networks and similarities in species composition of protected molluscs observed in trade or confiscated by the authorities (Fig 3), clear links occur between Pangandaran and Surabaya (Baroni-Urbani Buser coefficient of 0.913) and Sumenep (0.837) and between Pasir Putih and Surabaya (0.853) and Banyuwangi (0.840). Surabaya emerges as a centre for the trade in protected mollusc shells with clear links to Sumenep on nearby Madura (0.913) and Kendari on Sulawesi (0.913). Likewise, links between Bali and Sulwesi (0.775) are evident. At an international level, trade links between these Indonesian islands and North America occur as well as the Asia-Pacific region.

Bottom Line: Data from 20 confiscated shipments show an on-going trade in these molluscs.Two-thirds of this trade was destined for international markets, including in the USA and Asia-Pacific region.This impedes protection of these species on the ground and calls into question the effectiveness of protected species management in Indonesia; solutions are unlikely to be found only in Indonesia and must involve the cooperation of importing countries.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Oxford Wildlife Trade Research Group, Oxford Brookes University, OX3 0BP, Oxford, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT

Background: Tropical marine molluscs are traded globally. Larger species with slow life histories are under threat from over-exploitation. We report on the trade in protected marine mollusc shells in and from Java and Bali, Indonesia. Since 1987 twelve species of marine molluscs are protected under Indonesian law to shield them from overexploitation. Despite this protection they are traded openly in large volumes.

Methodology/principal findings: We collected data on species composition, origins, volumes and prices at two large open markets (2013), collected data from wholesale traders (2013), and compiled seizure data by the Indonesian authorities (2008-2013). All twelve protected species were observed in trade. Smaller species were traded for 32,000 shells valued at USD500,000), chambered nautilus (Nautilus pompilius) (>3,000 shells, USD60,000) and giant clams (Tridacna spp.) (>2,000 shells, USD45,000) were traded in largest volumes. Two-thirds of this trade was destined for international markets, including in the USA and Asia-Pacific region.

Conclusions/significance: We demonstrated that the trade in protected marine mollusc shells in Indonesia is not controlled nor monitored, that it involves large volumes, and that networks of shell collectors, traders, middlemen and exporters span the globe. This impedes protection of these species on the ground and calls into question the effectiveness of protected species management in Indonesia; solutions are unlikely to be found only in Indonesia and must involve the cooperation of importing countries.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus