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Large-Scale Trade in Legally Protected Marine Mollusc Shells from Java and Bali, Indonesia.

Nijman V, Spaan D, Nekaris KA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Data from 20 confiscated shipments show an on-going trade in these molluscs.Two-thirds of this trade was destined for international markets, including in the USA and Asia-Pacific region.This impedes protection of these species on the ground and calls into question the effectiveness of protected species management in Indonesia; solutions are unlikely to be found only in Indonesia and must involve the cooperation of importing countries.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Oxford Wildlife Trade Research Group, Oxford Brookes University, OX3 0BP, Oxford, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT

Background: Tropical marine molluscs are traded globally. Larger species with slow life histories are under threat from over-exploitation. We report on the trade in protected marine mollusc shells in and from Java and Bali, Indonesia. Since 1987 twelve species of marine molluscs are protected under Indonesian law to shield them from overexploitation. Despite this protection they are traded openly in large volumes.

Methodology/principal findings: We collected data on species composition, origins, volumes and prices at two large open markets (2013), collected data from wholesale traders (2013), and compiled seizure data by the Indonesian authorities (2008-2013). All twelve protected species were observed in trade. Smaller species were traded for 32,000 shells valued at USD500,000), chambered nautilus (Nautilus pompilius) (>3,000 shells, USD60,000) and giant clams (Tridacna spp.) (>2,000 shells, USD45,000) were traded in largest volumes. Two-thirds of this trade was destined for international markets, including in the USA and Asia-Pacific region.

Conclusions/significance: We demonstrated that the trade in protected marine mollusc shells in Indonesia is not controlled nor monitored, that it involves large volumes, and that networks of shell collectors, traders, middlemen and exporters span the globe. This impedes protection of these species on the ground and calls into question the effectiveness of protected species management in Indonesia; solutions are unlikely to be found only in Indonesia and must involve the cooperation of importing countries.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Size classes of shells in trade.Distribution of sizes of three commonly traded protected marine mollusc shells in Pangandaran, Indonesia.
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pone.0140593.g002: Size classes of shells in trade.Distribution of sizes of three commonly traded protected marine mollusc shells in Pangandaran, Indonesia.

Mentions: For three species enough data were collected from Pangandaran to evaluate the different size classes offered for sale (i.e., chambered nautilus (n = 33), horned helmet (n = 53) and Triton’s trumpet (n = 30) (Fig 2)). Chambered nautilus ranged in size from 14 to 22 cm, with most of the specimens in the 16–18 cm size class; the largest ones are close to the maximum size the species attains. Horned helmet ranged in size from 14 to 23 cm, with a peak in the 20–24 cm size class. None were close to the maximum size of around 31 cm. Triton’s trumpet ranged between 28 and 41 cm with the majority in the 30–34 cm and 35–39 cm size classes. The largest Triton’s trumpets we observed in Panagandaran are close to the maximum size the species attains.


Large-Scale Trade in Legally Protected Marine Mollusc Shells from Java and Bali, Indonesia.

Nijman V, Spaan D, Nekaris KA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Size classes of shells in trade.Distribution of sizes of three commonly traded protected marine mollusc shells in Pangandaran, Indonesia.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4696778&req=5

pone.0140593.g002: Size classes of shells in trade.Distribution of sizes of three commonly traded protected marine mollusc shells in Pangandaran, Indonesia.
Mentions: For three species enough data were collected from Pangandaran to evaluate the different size classes offered for sale (i.e., chambered nautilus (n = 33), horned helmet (n = 53) and Triton’s trumpet (n = 30) (Fig 2)). Chambered nautilus ranged in size from 14 to 22 cm, with most of the specimens in the 16–18 cm size class; the largest ones are close to the maximum size the species attains. Horned helmet ranged in size from 14 to 23 cm, with a peak in the 20–24 cm size class. None were close to the maximum size of around 31 cm. Triton’s trumpet ranged between 28 and 41 cm with the majority in the 30–34 cm and 35–39 cm size classes. The largest Triton’s trumpets we observed in Panagandaran are close to the maximum size the species attains.

Bottom Line: Data from 20 confiscated shipments show an on-going trade in these molluscs.Two-thirds of this trade was destined for international markets, including in the USA and Asia-Pacific region.This impedes protection of these species on the ground and calls into question the effectiveness of protected species management in Indonesia; solutions are unlikely to be found only in Indonesia and must involve the cooperation of importing countries.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Oxford Wildlife Trade Research Group, Oxford Brookes University, OX3 0BP, Oxford, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT

Background: Tropical marine molluscs are traded globally. Larger species with slow life histories are under threat from over-exploitation. We report on the trade in protected marine mollusc shells in and from Java and Bali, Indonesia. Since 1987 twelve species of marine molluscs are protected under Indonesian law to shield them from overexploitation. Despite this protection they are traded openly in large volumes.

Methodology/principal findings: We collected data on species composition, origins, volumes and prices at two large open markets (2013), collected data from wholesale traders (2013), and compiled seizure data by the Indonesian authorities (2008-2013). All twelve protected species were observed in trade. Smaller species were traded for 32,000 shells valued at USD500,000), chambered nautilus (Nautilus pompilius) (>3,000 shells, USD60,000) and giant clams (Tridacna spp.) (>2,000 shells, USD45,000) were traded in largest volumes. Two-thirds of this trade was destined for international markets, including in the USA and Asia-Pacific region.

Conclusions/significance: We demonstrated that the trade in protected marine mollusc shells in Indonesia is not controlled nor monitored, that it involves large volumes, and that networks of shell collectors, traders, middlemen and exporters span the globe. This impedes protection of these species on the ground and calls into question the effectiveness of protected species management in Indonesia; solutions are unlikely to be found only in Indonesia and must involve the cooperation of importing countries.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus