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Large-Scale Trade in Legally Protected Marine Mollusc Shells from Java and Bali, Indonesia.

Nijman V, Spaan D, Nekaris KA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Data from 20 confiscated shipments show an on-going trade in these molluscs.Two-thirds of this trade was destined for international markets, including in the USA and Asia-Pacific region.This impedes protection of these species on the ground and calls into question the effectiveness of protected species management in Indonesia; solutions are unlikely to be found only in Indonesia and must involve the cooperation of importing countries.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Oxford Wildlife Trade Research Group, Oxford Brookes University, OX3 0BP, Oxford, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT

Background: Tropical marine molluscs are traded globally. Larger species with slow life histories are under threat from over-exploitation. We report on the trade in protected marine mollusc shells in and from Java and Bali, Indonesia. Since 1987 twelve species of marine molluscs are protected under Indonesian law to shield them from overexploitation. Despite this protection they are traded openly in large volumes.

Methodology/principal findings: We collected data on species composition, origins, volumes and prices at two large open markets (2013), collected data from wholesale traders (2013), and compiled seizure data by the Indonesian authorities (2008-2013). All twelve protected species were observed in trade. Smaller species were traded for 32,000 shells valued at USD500,000), chambered nautilus (Nautilus pompilius) (>3,000 shells, USD60,000) and giant clams (Tridacna spp.) (>2,000 shells, USD45,000) were traded in largest volumes. Two-thirds of this trade was destined for international markets, including in the USA and Asia-Pacific region.

Conclusions/significance: We demonstrated that the trade in protected marine mollusc shells in Indonesia is not controlled nor monitored, that it involves large volumes, and that networks of shell collectors, traders, middlemen and exporters span the globe. This impedes protection of these species on the ground and calls into question the effectiveness of protected species management in Indonesia; solutions are unlikely to be found only in Indonesia and must involve the cooperation of importing countries.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Legally protected shells for sale.Protected marine mollusc shells for sale in Pangandaran, Indonesia, June 2013. Top: Horned helmet Cassis cornuta and chambered nautilus Nautilus pompilius. Bottom: Chambered nautilus
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pone.0140593.g001: Legally protected shells for sale.Protected marine mollusc shells for sale in Pangandaran, Indonesia, June 2013. Top: Horned helmet Cassis cornuta and chambered nautilus Nautilus pompilius. Bottom: Chambered nautilus

Mentions: We observed a large range of protected marine species traded as curios. In Pangandaran, of the estimated 240 and 260 shops that sold marine curios (January and June 2013, respectively), around 80 to 90 sold at least one species of protected shell, and often many more. The shops with the largest variety of protected wildlife (typically 8 to 9 species of the listed 12) were situated in the tourism market at the northern end of the village. For Pasir Putih in June 2013, of the estimated 150 shops that sold marine curios, at least 45 offered legally protected shells for sale (Fig 1). These shops were equally spread out over the entire beach front, with three shops situated on the main road dissecting the village.


Large-Scale Trade in Legally Protected Marine Mollusc Shells from Java and Bali, Indonesia.

Nijman V, Spaan D, Nekaris KA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Legally protected shells for sale.Protected marine mollusc shells for sale in Pangandaran, Indonesia, June 2013. Top: Horned helmet Cassis cornuta and chambered nautilus Nautilus pompilius. Bottom: Chambered nautilus
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4696778&req=5

pone.0140593.g001: Legally protected shells for sale.Protected marine mollusc shells for sale in Pangandaran, Indonesia, June 2013. Top: Horned helmet Cassis cornuta and chambered nautilus Nautilus pompilius. Bottom: Chambered nautilus
Mentions: We observed a large range of protected marine species traded as curios. In Pangandaran, of the estimated 240 and 260 shops that sold marine curios (January and June 2013, respectively), around 80 to 90 sold at least one species of protected shell, and often many more. The shops with the largest variety of protected wildlife (typically 8 to 9 species of the listed 12) were situated in the tourism market at the northern end of the village. For Pasir Putih in June 2013, of the estimated 150 shops that sold marine curios, at least 45 offered legally protected shells for sale (Fig 1). These shops were equally spread out over the entire beach front, with three shops situated on the main road dissecting the village.

Bottom Line: Data from 20 confiscated shipments show an on-going trade in these molluscs.Two-thirds of this trade was destined for international markets, including in the USA and Asia-Pacific region.This impedes protection of these species on the ground and calls into question the effectiveness of protected species management in Indonesia; solutions are unlikely to be found only in Indonesia and must involve the cooperation of importing countries.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Oxford Wildlife Trade Research Group, Oxford Brookes University, OX3 0BP, Oxford, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT

Background: Tropical marine molluscs are traded globally. Larger species with slow life histories are under threat from over-exploitation. We report on the trade in protected marine mollusc shells in and from Java and Bali, Indonesia. Since 1987 twelve species of marine molluscs are protected under Indonesian law to shield them from overexploitation. Despite this protection they are traded openly in large volumes.

Methodology/principal findings: We collected data on species composition, origins, volumes and prices at two large open markets (2013), collected data from wholesale traders (2013), and compiled seizure data by the Indonesian authorities (2008-2013). All twelve protected species were observed in trade. Smaller species were traded for 32,000 shells valued at USD500,000), chambered nautilus (Nautilus pompilius) (>3,000 shells, USD60,000) and giant clams (Tridacna spp.) (>2,000 shells, USD45,000) were traded in largest volumes. Two-thirds of this trade was destined for international markets, including in the USA and Asia-Pacific region.

Conclusions/significance: We demonstrated that the trade in protected marine mollusc shells in Indonesia is not controlled nor monitored, that it involves large volumes, and that networks of shell collectors, traders, middlemen and exporters span the globe. This impedes protection of these species on the ground and calls into question the effectiveness of protected species management in Indonesia; solutions are unlikely to be found only in Indonesia and must involve the cooperation of importing countries.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus